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The truth is, functional programming is not a tool or a framework, but fundamentally an approach to software development. Since PHP you. Pro Functional PHP Programming. Bring the power of functional programming to your PHP applications. From performance optimizations to concurrency. For more information, reference our Print and eBook Bulk Sales web page at . Why Not to Use PHP for Functional Programming .

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eBook> . PHP was one of the first web development programming languages to be open .. Class method: A function defined within a class The solution is to download an up to date version. “Functional programming refers to the declarative evaluation of pure functions to create immutable. Read "Functional PHP" by Gilles Crettenand available from Rakuten Kobo. Uncover the secrets of functional programming with PHP to ensure your ISBN: ; Language: English; Download options: EPUB 2 (Adobe DRM).

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Choose Store. Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Style and approach This is an easy-to-follow, definitive guide on developing applications using a functional paradigm with PHP. Skip this list. Ratings and Book Reviews 0 0 star ratings 0 reviews. Overall rating No ratings yet 0. How to write a great review Do Say what you liked best and least Describe the author's style Explain the rating you gave Don't Use rude and profane language Include any personal information Mention spoilers or the book's price Recap the plot.

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You've successfully reported this review. We appreciate your feedback. OK, close. The PHP applications of yesterday are no match for the complex, dynamic, and distributed applications of today. The new buzzword is microservices architectures.

Naturally, as developers, we gravitate towards MVC frameworks that help us create an extensible and clean system design with scaffolding and plumbing for routing, templates, persistence models, services, dependency injection DI , and built-in integration with database servers—Laravel is a good example of this and there are many others. Despite all of this, our business logic code is still becoming hard to reason about, and this is because we still use things like shared variables, mutable state, monolithic functions, side effects, and others.

These seemingly small concerns, which we secretly know to be bad practices but do them anyways, are what functional programming encourages and challenges you to pay close attention to. Object-oriented design certainly moves the needle in the right direction, but we need more. Also, language manufacturers are placing functional constructs into their languages. Hence, Java, JavaScript, F , C , Scala, Python, Ruby, all have some form of functional features because the industry is realizing that writing code functionally is opening the door to very clean and extensible architectures, as well as making their developers more productive.

FP is the programming paradigm you need. While based on very simple concepts, FP requires a shift in the way you think about a problem.

As I mentioned before, you can implement a functional style using PHP 5. This is around the time that the Closure class was added to the language more on this later. However, there are good reasons for upgrading to PHP 7. Aside from it being much faster, matching the runtime speed of Hack , and sometimes even better, the latest release adds strict typing and scalar type declarations.

Type declarations allow you to qualify any function parameter with its proper class or scalar type boolean, integer, string, MyClass, etc. Being a dynamic language, PHP will always attempt to coerce values of the wrong type into the expected scalar type, if appropriate. For instance, a function that expects an integer argument, when given a string, will coerce that value to an integer:. Sometimes we want this flexibility, but when we overdo it this can lead to very confusing and hard to read code.

Type declarations makes your code instantly self-documented, allows the compiler to perform certain clever optimizations, and lets modern IDEs better guide you using type inference.

Types checks also ensure your code is correct by enforcing type constraints on your function calls.

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As I mentioned before, functional programming is not a framework or a tool, but a way of writing code; thinking functionally is radically different from thinking in object-oriented or imperative terms. So, how do you become functional?

How do you begin to think this way? Unlearning old habits is actually the hardest part and can be a huge paradigm shift for most people that come from a different background.

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In simple terms, FP is a software development style that places a major emphasis on the use of functions. In this regard, you might consider it a procedural programming paradigm based on procedures, subroutines, or functions , and at its core it is, but with very different philosophies.

Your goal will be to abstract entire control flows and operations on data with functions in order to avoid side effects and reduce mutation of state in your application. Say you wanted to change the message contents or where it will be written to; you will need to rewrite this entire expression. Consider wrapping this code with a function and making these change-points parameters, so that you write it once and use it with any configuration. An improvement, indeed, but still not a completely reusable piece of code.

Suppose your requirements change and now you need to repeat this message twice. Obviously, your reaction will be to change the business logic of toFile to support this:.

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This simple thought process of creating parameterized functions to carry out simple tasks is a step in the right direction; however, it would be nice to minimize reaching into your core logic to support slight changes in requirements. We need to make our code more extensible. Thinking functionally involves treating parameters as not just simple scalar values but also as functions themselves that provide additional functionality; it also involves using functions or callables as just pieces of data that can be passed around anywhere.

Returning functions from other functions? Let me fast-forward a bit more and show you how I can use this function in its current form. And just as I directed this input text to a file, I could have just as easily sent it to the console, to the database, or over the network.

Without a doubt, this looks radically different than the original. Also, notice how I was able to split the logic of IO from manipulating its contents. We typically declare functions and invoke them directly. Above all, the important aspect about this code sample above is that it captures the process of decomposing a program into smaller pieces that are more reusable, reliable, and easier to understand; then they are combined to form an entire program that is easier to reason about as a whole.

Thinking about each of these simple functions individually is very easy, and separating the concerns of business logic and file IO makes your programs easier to test. Every functional program follows this fundamental principle. Now I just introduced a new concept compose , itself a function, to invoke a series of other functions together. Behind the scenes, it basically links each function in a chain-like manner by passing the return value of one as input to the next.

All you need to is make sure every function individually executes correctly. Because PHP 7 ensures that all of the types match, you can be confident this program will yield the right results. This is analogous to stacking legos together and will be central to the theme in this book: So, why does functional code look this way? This visual quality is not accidental. When comparing the functional to the non-functional solution, you may have noticed that there is a radical difference in style.

Both achieve the same purpose, yet look very different. Functional programming is foremost a declarative programming paradigm. Chapter 3 shows you how to build these data flows using point-free coding. As you know, the more popular models used today in PHP are procedural and object-oriented, both imperative paradigms.

For instance, sites built using older versions of Wordpress or Moodle are heavily procedural; whereas, sites built using Laravel are completely OOP.

Imperative programming treats a computer program as merely a sequence of top-to-bottom statements that change the state of the system in order to compute a result.

Suppose you need to square all of the numbers in an array. An imperative program follows these steps:. Imperative programming tells the computer, in great detail, how to perform a certain task looping through and applying the square formula to each number, in this case. This is the most common way of writing this code and most likely will be your first approach to tackling this problem.

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Declarative programming, on the other hand, separates program description from evaluation. It focuses on the use of expressions to describe what the logic of a program is or what output would look like without necessarily specifying its control flow or state changes.

Familiar examples of declarative code are seen in SQL statements:.

In PHP, declarative code is achieved using higher-order functions that establish a certain vocabulary based on a few set of primitives like filter, map, reduce, zip, compose, curry, lift, etc.

Once you employ this vocabulary to concoct the instructions subroutines, functions, procedures, etc that make up your program, the PHP runtime translates this higher level of abstraction into regular PHP code:.

Shifting to a functional approach to tackle this same task, you only need to be concerned with applying the correct behavior at each element and cede control of looping to other parts of the system. Notice a trend? Consider this example. Suppose we also needed to add all of the values within the array. So, we need add function:. Now, without fiddling with the internals of the function, I use the adder to reduce the array into a single number:. Also, standard loops are not reusable artifacts, only when they are abstracted within functions.

Perhaps in the future, PHP moves in the direction of allowing this class-level only feature to be used anywhere to define an entity that can only be assigned once, whether it be a variable or function:. But you can get close to achieving stateless programs, just like those Symfony services we spoke about earlier, using pure functions. Functional programming is based on the premise that you will build immutable programs based on pure functions as the building blocks of your business logic.

A pure function has the following qualities:. This includes your Laravel Active Record objects, for example. Operations in DAOs always cause side effects because their sole purpose is to interact with an external resource, the database. Programming with immutability can feel rather strange at first. This is a very natural thing for us to do. Consider the following function that reads and modifies a global variable:. This is not only considered bad practice from a functional point of view, but also a bit frowned upon in modern PHP applications.

Generally speaking, functions have side effects when reading from or writing to external resources. Matters get worse, when this state is shared:. In this case, doWork and doMoreWork are very tightly coupled. This coupling means that you necessarily need to invoke doWork before calling doMoreWork , always in that order.

Hence, you lose the autonomy of these functions and make them harder to unit test in isolation. Side effects create a temporal coupling or dependency, which means the execution of one can determine the outcome of the next.

The result of doMoreWork is reliant on doWork. In functional programming, functions should behave like reusable artifacts that can be evaluated in any order and continue to yield correct results.

Not all side effects are this obvious. Some of them are embedded into language level functions. Instead of returning a new sorted array, it sorts the array in place and returns a arguably useless boolean result:. So, now you need to ask yourself: Indeed, pure functions can be very hard to use in a world full of dynamic behavior and mutation— the real world. This pure function is now not only immutable but also has a clear contract that describes clearly the information it needs to carry out its task, making it simpler to understand and use.

This is a simple example, of course, but this level of reasoning can be taken to functions of any complexity. Generally, the goal is to create functions that do one thing and combine them together instead of creating large monolithic functions. We can take the notion of purity a step further. In functional programming, we redefine what it means to create a function. In a sense we go back to basics, to the maths, and treat functions as nothing more than a mapping of types.

In this case, its input types arguments to its output type return value. For example, f::