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Barrie Sosinsky Cloud Computing Bible Published by Wiley Publishing .. Please note that some special symbols used in this eBook may not display . That revenue has enabled Google to offer free software to users . Everything from the application down to the infrastructure is the vendor's responsibility. Cloud Computing Bible (eBook, PDF) - Sosinsky, Barrie. Als Download Sofort per Download lieferbar QuickBooks For Dummies (eBook, PDF). 17, Read "Cloud Computing Bible" by Barrie Sosinsky available from Rakuten Kobo. Cloud Computing - Concepts, Technology & Architecture ebook by Thomas Erl, Microsoft System Center Optimizing Service Manager. Thomas Ellermann. Free ISBN: ; Language: English; Download options: EPUB 3.
Not in United States? Choose your country's store to see books available for purchase. Its potential for lowering IT costs makes cloud computing a major force for both IT vendors and users; it is expected to gain momentum rapidly with the launch of Office Web Apps later this year. Because cloud computing involves various technologies, protocols, platforms, and infrastructure elements, this comprehensive reference is just what you need if you? Anyone involved with planning, implementing, using, or maintaining a cloud computing project will rely on the information in Cloud Computing Bible. Cloud Computing.
SaaS characteristics 4. What is an identity? Networked identity service classes 4. Identity system codes of conduct 4. IDaaS interoperability 4. User authentication 4. Authorization markup languages 4. Defining Compliance as a Service CaaS 4. Summary II. Using Platforms 5. Understanding Abstraction and Virtualization 5. Using Virtualization Technologies 5.
Load Balancing and Virtualization 5. Advanced load balancing 5. The Google cloud 5. Understanding Hypervisors 5. Virtual machine types 5. VMware vSphere 5. Understanding Machine Imaging 5. Porting Applications 5. AppZero Virtual Application Appliance 5.
Summary 6. Capacity Planning 6. Defining Baseline and Metrics 6. Baseline measurements 6. System metrics 6. Load testing 6. Resource ceilings 6. Server and instance types 6. Network Capacity 6. Scaling 6. Summary 7. Exploring Platform as a Service 7. Defining Services 7. SaaS versus PaaS 7. Application development 7. Using PaaS Application Frameworks 7.
Drupal 7. Eccentex AppBase 3. LongJump 7. Squarespace 7. WaveMaker 7. Wolf Frameworks 7. Summary 8. Using Google Web Services 8. Exploring Google Applications 8.
Surveying the Google Application Portfolio 8. Indexed search 8. The dark Web 8. Aggregation and disintermediation 8. Productivity applications and services 8. Enterprise offerings 8. AdWords 8. Google Analytics 8. Google Translate 8.
Exploring the Google Toolkit 8. The Google APIs 8. Working with the Google App Engine 8. Summary 9. Using Amazon Web Services 9. Understanding Amazon Web Services 9. Amazon Web Service Components and Services 9. Amazon Machine Images 9. Pricing models 9. System images and software 9. Creating an account and instance on EC2 9. Working with Amazon Storage Systems 9. Amazon Simple Storage System S3 9.
CloudFront 9. Understanding Amazon Database Services 9. Amazon SimpleDB 9. Choosing a database for AWS 9. Summary Using Microsoft Cloud Services Exploring Microsoft Cloud Services Defining the Windows Azure Platform The software plus services approach The Azure Platform The Windows Azure service Windows Azure AppFabric Azure Content Delivery Network SQL Azure Windows Azure pricing Windows Live services Using Windows Live Windows Live Essentials Windows Live Home Windows Live for Mobile Summary III.
Exploring Cloud Infrastructures Managing the Cloud Administrating the Clouds Management responsibilities Lifecycle management Cloud Management Products Emerging Cloud Management Standards DMTF cloud management standards Cloud Commons and SMI Understanding Cloud Security Securing the Cloud The security boundary Security service boundary Security mapping Securing Data Brokered cloud storage access Storage location and tenancy Encryption Auditing and compliance Establishing Identity and Presence Identity protocol standards Windows Azure identity standards Presence Summary IV.
Understanding Services and Applications Understanding Service Oriented Architecture Introducing Service Oriented Architecture The Enterprise Service Bus Service catalogs Defining SOA Communications Business Process Execution Language Business process modeling Managing and Monitoring SOA SOA management tools SOA security The Open Cloud Consortium Moving Applications to the Cloud Applications in the Clouds Functionality mapping Application attributes Cloud service attributes System abstraction Cloud bursting Applications and Cloud APIs Working with Cloud-Based Storage Measuring the Digital Universe Cloud storage in the Digital Universe Cloud storage definition Provisioning Cloud Storage With a utility model of computing, an application can start small and grow to be enormous overnight.
This democratization of computing means that any application has the potential to scale, and that even the smallest seed planted in the cloud may be a giant. Cloud computing will affect your life in the following ways in the next ten years: Frankly, it is hard to predict what new capabilities the cloud may enable. The cloud has a trajectory that is hard to plot and a scope that reaches into so many aspects of our daily life that innovation can occur across a broad range.
Many technologically savvy people have told me they don't understand what the fuss about cloud computing is; in fact, they believe there is nothing new about cloud computing, at least from a technological standpoint.
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Indeed, they have a point. The technologies that enable cloud computing—system and resource virtualization, thin clients browsers, for example , virtual private networks and tunneling, and others—are all technologies that existed before anyone ever began to talk about cloud computing.
That is all true. Cloud computing is a revolutionary way of architecting and implementing services based on evolutionary changes. Cloud Computing Bible attempts to explain how this all came about. To read this book and get the most out of it, you should know about basic computer operations and theory. These are basic skills without which it would be hard to effectively maximize the value contained in this book. If you don't have these skills, Wiley publishes a number of introductory computer books that will give them to you.
It doesn't matter which type of computer operating system you use because most of cloud computing is operating-system-neutral. Indeed, as time goes by, it may not matter whether you use a computer at all. Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are on their way to displacing computers in many venues. If you have some familiarity with smartphones, that would be helpful in understanding the last part of this book on mobile-based cloud applications, but it isn't a necessity.
This vocabulary, along with description of cloud architectures and types, will allow you to discuss cloud computing in a standard way and serves to give you a framework over which you can place all the different service types that make cloud computing such a rich area.
You get a background in the concepts of abstraction and virtualization, along with methods for examining how applications are scaled. This part contains several chapters of vendor-specific services that are illustrative of different cloud computing models. In several chapters, I discuss vendors that are thought leaders in different fields of cloud computing. For infrastructure, I've chosen to highlight Amazon Web Services, and for platforms and services, you learn about the efforts of Google and Microsoft in cloud computing.
The cloud builds on standard distributed networking technologies, applied over systems with large resources, often over federated systems and services. The remaining chapters in Part IV describe different types of applications in common use in the cloud today. Those applications are the most highly developed ones in the cloud and have the largest number of users and services.
The examples chosen are online backup and storage, Webmail, online productivity applications, messaging, and online media, particularly using streaming technologies. These chapters describe the rise of the smartphone and its predecessor, the feature phone. These phones are supported by a host of Web services. Since , more traffic has been flowing over wireless networks than wired networks, so it would be hard to underestimate how much impact mobile devices have on the cloud.
For vast portions of the world, the cell phone is the only computer most people will know. Mobile Web services use different protocols and technologies and can take into account location and other user profile information that can use the cloud to create a rich user experience. Please dive into whatever chapter interests you.
I hope you enjoy reading about cloud computing as much as I enjoyed writing about it. Icons The icons in this book offer you a chance to learn a little more about a topic, refer to a discussion elsewhere in the book, address a problem, or get a little more help. This book offers the following icons: Caution A Caution icon alerts you to a potential problem that you should be aware of. Note A Note icon points to a clarification or expansion of the topic being discussed.
Tip Tips are shortcuts you can use to get something done more effectively. Cross-Ref A Cross-Ref icon provides a reference to related discussions that take place elsewhere in the book. Because this isn't a how-to book, you will find fewer Cautions and Tips in this book than you might find in other Wiley Bibles. However, there are plenty of Notes and Cross-Refs to help guide you in these chapters.
Contacting Us 9. If, after reviewing this publication, you feel some important information was overlooked or you have any questions concerning cloud computing, you can contact us and let us know your views, opinions, complaints, or suggestions for the next revision. You can reach the author, Barrie Sosinsky, at the following e-mail address: Please note that some special symbols used in this eBook may not display properly on all eReader devices.
If you have trouble determining any symbol, please call Wiley Product Technical Support at Outside of the United States, please call You can also contact Wiley Product Technical Support at www.
Examining the Value Proposition Chapter 1: Assessing the Value Proposition Measuring the Cloud's Value Early adopters and new applications The laws of cloudonomics Cloud computing obstacles Behavioral factors relating to cloud adoption Measuring cloud computing costs Using Platforms Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Using Google Web Services Exploring Cloud Infrastructures Chapter Part IV: Understanding Services and Applications Chapter Privacy and security Interaction and interoperability Summary Chapter Using the Mobile Cloud Chapter Part I: Chapter 1: Defining Cloud Computing IN THIS CHAPTER Defining cloud computing Learning about cloud types Understanding the paradigm shift that is cloud computing Comparing the benefits and disadvantages of cloud systems Cloud computing refers to applications and services that run on a distributed network using virtualized resources and accessed by common Internet protocols and networking standards.
It is distinguished by the notion that resources are virtual and limitless and that details of the physical systems on which software runs are abstracted from the user.
In an effort to better describe cloud computing, a number of cloud types have been defined. In this chapter, you learn about two different classes of clouds: The deployment model tells you where the cloud is located and for what purpose. Public, private, community, and hybrid clouds are deployment models. Service models describe the type of service that the service provider is offering. The service models build on one another and define what a vendor must manage and what the client's responsibility is.
Cloud computing represents a real paradigm shift in the way in which systems are deployed. The massive scale of cloud computing systems was enabled by the popularization of the Internet and the growth of some large service companies.
Cloud computing makes the long-held dream of utility computing possible with a pay-as-you-go, infinitely scalable, universally available system. With cloud computing, you can start very small and become big very fast. That's why cloud computing is revolutionary, even if the technology it is built on is evolutionary. Not all applications benefit from deployment in the cloud. Issues with latency, transaction control, and in particular security and regulatory compliance are of particular concern.
Defining Cloud Computing Cloud computing takes the technology, services, and applications that are similar to those on the Internet and turns them into a self-service utility. Cloud computing abstracts the details of system implementation from users and developers. Applications run on physical systems that aren't specified, data is stored in locations that are unknown, administration of systems is outsourced to others, and access by users is ubiquitous.
Cloud computing virtualizes systems by pooling and sharing resources. Systems and storage can be provisioned as needed from a centralized infrastructure, costs are assessed on a metered basis, multi-tenancy is enabled, and resources are scalable with agility. Computing as a utility is a dream that dates from the beginning of the computing industry itself. A set of new technologies has come along that, along with the need for more efficient and affordable computing, has enabled an on-demand system to develop.
It is these enabling technologies that are the focal point of this book. Many people mistakenly believe that cloud computing is nothing more than the Internet given a different name. The Internet has many of the characteristics of what is now being called cloud computing.
The Internet offers abstraction, runs using the same set of protocols and standards, and uses the same applications and operating systems. These same characteristics are found in an intranet, an internal version of the Internet. When an intranet becomes large enough that a diagram no longer wishes to differentiate between individual physical systems, the intranet too becomes identified as a cloud.
Cloud computing is an abstraction based on the notion of pooling physical resources and presenting them as a virtual resource. It is a new model for provisioning resources, for staging applications, and for platform-independent user access to services. Clouds can come in many different types, and the services and applications that run on clouds may or may not be delivered by a cloud service provider. These different types and levels of cloud services mean that it is important to define what type of cloud computing system you are working with.
To help clarify how cloud computing has changed the nature of commercial system deployment, consider these three examples: In the last decade, Google has built a worldwide network of datacenters to service its search engine. In doing so Google has captured a substantial portion of the world's advertising revenue. That revenue has enabled Google to offer free software to users based on that infrastructure and has changed the market for user-facing software.
This is the classic Software as a Service case described in Chapter 8. By contrast, Microsoft is creating the Azure Platform. It enables. NET Framework applications to run over the Internet as an alternate platform for Microsoft developer software running on desktops, which you will learn about in Chapter One of the most successful cloud-based businesses is Amazon Web Services, which is an Infrastructure as a Service offering that lets you rent virtual computers on Amazon's own infrastructure.
AWS is the subject of Chapter 9. These new capabilities enable applications to be written and deployed with minimal expense and to be rapidly scaled and made available worldwide as business conditions permit. This is truly a revolutionary change in the way enterprise computing is created and deployed.
Cloud Types To discuss cloud computing intelligently, you need to define the lexicon of cloud computing; many acronyms in this area probably won't survive long.
Most people separate cloud computing into two distinct sets of models: This refers to the location and management of the cloud's infrastructure. This consists of the particular types of services that you can access on a cloud computing platform. This is a very useful demarcation that is now widely accepted. The NIST model The United States government is a major consumer of computer services and, therefore, one of the major users of cloud computing networks.
The U. Those models and their relationship to essential characteristics of cloud computing are shown in Figure 1. The NIST model originally did not require a cloud to use virtualization to pool resources, nor did it absolutely require that a cloud support multi-tenancy in the earliest definitions of cloud computing. Multi-tenancy is the sharing of resources among two or more clients. The latest version of the NIST definition does require that cloud computing networks use virtualization and support multi-tenancy.
Because cloud computing is moving toward a set of modular interacting components based on standards such as the Service Oriented Architecture described in Chapter 13 , you might expect that future versions of the NIST model may add those features as well.
The NIST cloud model doesn't address a number of intermediary services such as transaction or service brokers, provisioning, integration, and interoperability services that form the basis for many cloud computing discussions. Given the emerging roles of service buses, brokers, and cloud APIs at various levels, undoubtedly these elements need to be added to capture the whole story. The group has an interesting model that attempts to categorize a cloud network based on four dimensional factors.
The four dimensions of the Cloud Cube Model are shown in Figure 1. Insourced or Outsourced means whether the service is provided by the customer or the service provider.
Taken together, the fourth dimension corresponds to two different states in the eight possible cloud forms: The sourcing dimension addresses the deliverer of the service. What the Cloud Cube Model is meant to show is that the traditional notion of a network boundary being the network's firewall no longer applies in cloud computing.
Deployment models A deployment model defines the purpose of the cloud and the nature of how the cloud is located. The NIST definition for the four deployment models is as follows: The public cloud infrastructure is available for public use alternatively for a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.
The private cloud infrastructure is operated for the exclusive use of an organization. The cloud may be managed by that organization or a third party. Private clouds may be either on- or off-premises. A hybrid cloud combines multiple clouds private, community of public where those clouds retain their unique identities, but are bound together as a unit. A hybrid cloud may offer standardized or proprietary access to data and applications, as well as application portability.
A community cloud is one where the cloud has been organized to serve a common function or purpose. It may be for one organization or for several organizations, but they share common concerns such as their mission, policies, security, regulatory compliance needs, and so on. A community cloud may be managed by the constituent organization s or by a third party. Figure 1. In the sections that follow, these different cloud deployment models are described in more detail.
Federal Cloud Computing Initiative http: This is a good example of a community cloud deployment, with the government being the community. An example of this connection in practice is the YouTube channel created by the White House for citizens' outreach. You can find the White House channel at http: Government YouTube channel at http: You can see YouTube in action when you visit WhiteHouse.
Service models In the deployment model, different cloud types are an expression of the manner in which infrastructure is deployed.
You can think of the cloud as the boundary between where a client's network, management, and responsibilities ends and the cloud service provider's begins. As cloud computing has developed, different vendors offer clouds that have different services associated with them. The portfolio of services offered adds another set of definitions called the service model.
There are many different service models described in the literature, all of which take the following form: IaaS provides virtual machines, virtual storage, virtual infrastructure, and other hardware assets as resources that clients can provision. The IaaS service provider manages all the infrastructure, while the client is responsible for all other aspects of the deployment.
This can include the operating system, applications, and user interactions with the system. PaaS provides virtual machines, operating systems, applications, services, development frameworks, transactions, and control structures. The client can deploy its applications on the cloud infrastructure or use applications that were programmed using languages and tools that are supported by the PaaS service provider. The service provider manages the cloud infrastructure, the operating systems, and the enabling software.
The client is responsible for installing and managing the application that it is deploying. SaaS is a complete operating environment with applications, management, and the user interface. In the SaaS model, the application is provided to the client through a thin client interface a browser, usually , and the customer's responsibility begins and ends with entering and managing its data and user interaction.
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Everything from the application down to the infrastructure is the vendor's responsibility. The three different service models taken together have come to be known as the SPI model of cloud computing. Many other service models have been mentioned: However, the SPI services encompass all the other possibilities. One such representation called the Cloud Reference Model is shown in Figure 1. At the bottom of the stack is the hardware or infrastructure that comprises the network. As you move upward in the stack, each service model inherits the capabilities of the service model beneath it.
IaaS has the least levels of integrated functionality and the lowest levels of integration, and SaaS has the most. Examples of IaaS service providers include: On Amazon EC2, considered the classic IaaS example, a client would provision a computer in the form of a virtual machine image, provision storage, and then go on to install the operating system and applications onto that virtual system.
Amazon has a number of operating systems and some enterprise applications that they offer on a rental basis to customers in the form of a number of canned images, but customers are free to install whatever software they want to run. Amazon's responsibilities as expressed in its Service Level Agreement, which is published on Amazon's Web site, contractually obligates Amazon to provide a level of performance commensurate with the type of resource chosen, as well as a certain level of reliability as measured by the system's uptime.
A PaaS service adds integration features, middleware, and other orchestration and choreography services to the IaaS model. Examples of PaaS services are: With SaaS, the customer uses the application as needed and is not responsible for the installation of the application, its maintenance, or its upkeep. A good example of an SaaS offering is an online accounting package, with the online versions of Quicken and Quickbooks a prime example.
Cloud Computing Bible [Book]
A client using an SaaS service might—as is the case for Quickbooks online—log into the service from his browser, create an account, and enter data into the system. Other good examples of SaaS cloud service providers are: For example, SalesForce.
Over time SalesForce. Windows Azure Platform allows. NET developers to stage their applications on top of Microsoft's infrastructure so that any application built with the. NET Framework can live locally, in Microsoft's cloud network, or some combination thereof. As Microsoft adds enterprise applications to its cloud service portfolio, as it has in the case of SQL Azure and many other enterprise applications to come , these offerings fall under the rubric of being an SaaS service model.
Because a discussion of service models forms the basis for Chapter 4, I refer you to that chapter for a more in-depth discussion of this topic.
Examining the Characteristics of Cloud Computing Cloud computing builds on so many older concepts in computer technology that it can be hard for people newly introduced to the concept to grasp that it represents a paradigm shift in computing. It's an evolutionary change that enables a revolutionary new approach to how computing services are produced and consumed.
Paradigm shift When you choose a cloud service provider, you are renting or leasing part of an enormous infrastructure of datacenters, computers, storage, and networking capacity. Many of these datacenters are multi-million-dollar investments by the companies that run them. Most of the large cloud computing service providers have multiple datacenters located all over the world.
An accurate count can be difficult to obtain, but in Chapter 9 the location of some 20 Google's cloud includes perhaps some 35 datacenters worldwide.
In the s, military initiative aimed at miniaturizing electronics funded many of the semiconductor production lines that led to advanced microprocessors, dense memory arrays, and the sophisticated integrated circuit technology that makes computers, mobile devices, and so much more possible today. In the s, the commercialization of the Internet gave rise to some very large companies that were forced to build very large computing infrastructures to support their businesses.
Google's business has also grown exponentially and required the building of datacenters worldwide. One of its datacenters in Dalles, Oregon, built in on the banks of the Columbia River, is shown in Figure 1. It is the size of an American football field. Datacenters have been sited to do the following: It has been estimated that the Internet consumes roughly 10 percent of the world's total power, so these companies are very big energy consumers.
In some cases, such as Google, these companies may also become some of the major energy producers of the 21st century. Essentially what has happened is that the Internet has funded the creation of the first information technology utilities.
That's why cloud computing is such a big deal. According to the research firm IDC, the following areas were the top five cloud applications in use in Movement of these applications to the cloud has been transparent, and in many cases the older on-premises deployment is supported by the same applications hosted in the cloud.
For example, many people have used ChannelAdvisor. That site recently expanded its service to include a CRM connector to Salesforce. One of the largest call center operations companies is a cloud-based service, Liveops.
Cloud computing has shifted the economics of software delivery in a manner similar to the way that music downloads have shifted the delivery of commercial music. The cost advantages of cloud computing have enabled new software vendors to create productivity applications that they can make Given the general demise of the big-box computer store along with many other traditional retail models, it has become increasingly difficult for vendors to get shelf space.
You can visit your local Wal-Mart to get some sense of this issue. This new model of computer application delivery has allowed vendors like Google to offer complete office suites to individuals for free, supported by its advertiser subscription model. Even Google's business offerings have had some major successes against industry leader Microsoft Office.
A client can provision computer resources without the need for interaction with cloud service provider personnel. Access to resources in the cloud is available over the network using standard methods in a manner that provides platform-independent access to clients of all types. This includes a mixture of heterogeneous operating systems, and thick and thin platforms such as laptops, mobile phones, and PDA.
A cloud service provider creates resources that are pooled together in a system that supports multi-tenant usage. Physical and virtual systems are dynamically allocated or reallocated as needed. Intrinsic in this concept of pooling is the idea of abstraction that hides the location of resources such as virtual machines, processing, memory, storage, and network bandwidth and connectivity. Resources can be rapidly and elastically provisioned.
The system can add resources by either scaling up systems more powerful computers or scaling out systems more computers of the same kind , and scaling may be automatic or manual. From the standpoint of the client, cloud computing resources should look limitless and can be purchased at any time and in any quantity. The use of cloud system resources is measured, audited, and reported to the customer based on a metered system. A client is charged based on the level of services provided.
While these five core features of cloud computing are on almost anybody's list, you also should consider these additional advantages: Because cloud networks operate at higher efficiencies and with greater utilization, significant cost reductions are often encountered. Depending upon the type of service being offered, you may find that you do not require hardware or software licenses to implement your service.
The Quality of Service QoS is something that you can obtain under contract from your vendor. The scale of cloud computing networks and their ability to provide load balancing and failover makes them highly reliable, often much more reliable than what you can achieve in a single organization.
A cloud computing deployment lets someone else manage your computing infrastructure while you manage your business. In most instances, you achieve considerable reductions in IT staffing costs.
Because the system is centralized, you can easily apply patches and upgrades. This means your users always have access to the latest software versions.
In particular, upfront capital expenditures are dramatically reduced. In cloud computing, anyone can be a giant at any time. This very long list of benefits should make it obvious why so many people are excited about the idea of cloud computing.
Cloud computing is not a panacea, however. In many instances, cloud computing doesn't work well for particular applications. Disadvantages of cloud computing While the benefits of cloud computing are myriad, the disadvantages are just as numerous. As a general rule, the advantages of cloud computing present a more compelling case for small organizations than for larger ones. Larger organizations can support IT staff and development efforts that put in place custom software solutions that are crafted with their particular needs in mind.
When you use an application or service in the cloud, you are using something that isn't necessarily as customizable as you might want. Additionally, although many cloud computing applications are very capable, applications deployed on-premises still have many more features than their cloud counterparts.
All cloud computing applications suffer from the inherent latency that is intrinsic in their WAN connectivity. While cloud computing applications excel at large-scale processing tasks, if your application needs large amounts of data transfer, cloud computing may not be the best model for you.
Additionally, cloud computing is a stateless system, as is the Internet in general. In order for communication to survive on a distributed system, it is necessarily unidirectional in nature.
All the requests you use in HTTP: The service provider then sends a response. Although it may seem that you are carrying on a conversation between client and provider, there is an architectural disconnect between the two.
That lack of state allows messages to travel over different routes and for data to arrive out of sequence, and many other characteristics allow the communication to succeed even when the medium is faulty.
Therefore, to impose transactional coherency upon the system, additional overhead in the form of service brokers, transaction managers, and other middleware must be added to the system. This can introduce a very large performance hit into some applications.
If you had to pick a single area of concern in cloud computing, that area would undoubtedly be privacy and security.
When your data travels over and rests on systems that are no longer under your control, you have increased risk due to the interception and malfeasance of others. You can't count on a cloud provider maintaining your privacy in the face of government actions. VoIP is one of the services that is heavily deployed on cloud computing systems.
Another example is the case of Google's service in China, which had been subject to a filter that removed content to which the Chinese government objected. After five years of operation, and after Google detected that Chinese hackers were accessing Gmail accounts of Chinese citizens, Google moved their servers for Google.
So while the cloud computing industry continues to address security concerns, if you have an application that works with sensitive data, you need to be particularly aware of the issues involved. These days most organizations are faced with regulatory compliance issues of various kinds. In Europe, the European Common Market has a raft of its own legislation for companies to deal with. Rules apply to data at rest, and different rules may apply to data in transit.
If you stage your cloud computing deployment across states and countries, the bad news is that you may end up having to comply with multiple jurisdictions. Don't expect much support from the cloud system provider or from the governments involved. The laws of most regulatory agencies place the entire burden on the client. Assessing the Role of Open Standards When you consider the development of cloud computing to date, it is clear that the technology is the result of the convergence of many different standards.
Cloud computing's promise of scalability completely changes the manner in which services and applications are deployed. Because clients do not want to be locked into any single system, there is a strong industry push to create standards-based clouds.
The cloud computing industry is working with these architectural standards: These businesses require open standards so that data is both portable and universally accessible.
The race to create the first generation of open cloud platform technologies that will compete with proprietary technologies offered by companies such as Microsoft Azure Platform and VMware vSphere is already underway. The software developed will be released under the Apache 2.
OpenStack Compute software will automatically create large groups of virtual private servers on industry-standard systems. OpenStack Storage is the software that will create redundant object-based storage using clusters of commodity servers and storage systems. Eucalyptus http: The project has an interface that can connect to Amazon's compute and storage cloud systems EC2 and S3 , and it maintains a private cloud as a sandbox for developers to work in.
The company Eucalyptus Systems was formed in to support the commercialization of the Eucalyptus Cloud Computing Platform. OpenStack and Eucalyptus are by no means unique; several other projects are underway to create open-source cloud platforms. There also are numerous research projects in the area.
To understand cloud computing and fully appreciate its subtleties, you need to categorize the different cloud types. The two types of cloud models are those based on where the cloud is deployed and those based on the types of services that clouds offer. In this chapter, you were introduced to these cloud types.
Cloud computing has a number of benefits and has attracted great industry and general interest. Cloud computing allows systems to be created cheaply with little upfront costs and to be scaled to massive sizes, when needed. Not all applications and services benefit from cloud computing, and I presented some of the factors that help you differentiate between successful deployments and those that are not.
Chapter 2: These attributes—scalability, elasticity, low barrier to entry, and a utility type of delivery—completely change how applications are created, priced, and delivered. I describe the factors that have led to this new model of computing. Early adopters of these services are those enterprises that can best make use of these characteristics.
To get a sense for the value of cloud computing, this chapter compares it to on-premises systems. From this perspective, a number of benefits for cloud computing emerge, along with many obstacles. I describe these factors in some detail. Aside from technological reasons, behavior considerations associated with cloud adoption are discussed.
Cloud computing is particularly valuable because it shifts capital expenditures into operating expenditures. This has the benefit of decoupling growth from cash on hand or from requiring access to capital. It also shifts risk away from an organization and onto the cloud provider. This chapter describes how to begin to measure the costs of cloud computing and some of the tools that you can use to do so. The concept of optimization known as right-sizing is described, and cloud computing has some unique new capabilities in this area.
They are essentially your working contract with any provider. Cloud computing is having impact on software licensing, which although not entirely settled is also described in this chapter. Measuring the Cloud's Value Cloud computing presents new opportunities to users and developers because it is based on the paradigm of a shared multitenant utility.
The ability to access pooled resources on a pay-as-you-go Any application or process that benefits from economies of scale, commoditization of assets, and conformance to programming standards benefits from the application of cloud computing. Any application or process that requires a completely customized solution, imposes a high degree of specialization, and requires access to proprietary technology is going to expose the limits of cloud computing rather quickly.
A cloud is defined as the combination of the infrastructure of a datacenter with the ability to provision hardware and software. A service that concentrates on hardware follows the Infrastructure as a Service IaaS model, which is a good description for the Amazon Web Service described in Chapter 9.
When you add a software stack, such as an operating system and applications to the service, the model shifts to the Software as a Service SaaS model. The best example of a PaaS offering is probably SalesForce. As the Windows Azure Platform matures adding more access to Microsoft servers, it is developing into a PaaS model rather quickly. Cloud computing is in its wild and wooly frontier days, so it's best to take a few of the lesser known acronyms with a grain of salt.
A cloud is an infrastructure that can be partitioned and provisioned, and resources are pooled and virtualized. If the cloud is available to the public on a pay-as-you-go basis, then the cloud is a public cloud, and the service is described as a utility. If the cloud is captive in an organization's infrastructure network , it is referred to as a private cloud.