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According to Sinhalese tradition, this language was introduced to Sri Lanka by a banished prince in the 6th century who conquered the local 'demons'. It has a relatively flexible grammar, so it won't take you long to conquer that language barrier. Lonely Planet gets you to the heart of a place. Our job is to make amazing travel experiences happen. We visit the places we write about each and every edition. We never take freebies for positive coverage, so you can always rely on us to tell it like it is. About Lonely Planet:
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Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Paperback Verified Purchase. Sinhalese, with its nine cases and unique alphabet, is a difficult nut to crack. The author did not make it easier with this phrase book.
Sinhala e novels
Some examples of its shortfalls: Many of the phrase examples are given in the past. The dictionary is maddeningly incomplete. Why the translation for man, but not woman? Tomorrow but not yesterday? Examples are rife. The selection might have been improved by referencing words included in any dictionary aimed at junior high school students.
Phonemic modifications of common case endings are not provided. Several pages are devoted to written Sinhalese, and its difference from spoken Sinhalese. Why would we care? After a two and a half week stay in Sri Lanka, I was able, with some effort, to make out perhaps a tenth of the alphabet. Those sections could have been used to better advantage. I could continue to nit pick.
On the plus side, the index is good, and close attention will provide you with a few hidden gems - words not in the dictionary used as examples. And finally, its workable, helpful, and what's the alternative for a small book that you can slip in a pocket? I couldn't find one, and I can say that the book helped me get around in Sri Lanka, and break the ice with the Sri Lankans who I met - my fumbling attempts to communicate with them in Sinhalese garnered me many a smile.
Phrase books exist in many languages. For those who don't know the grammar, they are not useful. I bought this one for a friend who asked for it, and it's just like others. It's more usable by those who already can handle the grammar.
Sinhala is eminently learnable, particularly by those who know other north Indian languages. There is an older Foreign Service Institute method, now free and availalble for download no audio. The best known one remains the Fairbanks, Gair, and Karunatilake book and tapes, still available from Cornell University. But for the serious learner the expense is worth it That method starts using the script after lesson 24, and thus becomes harder to read quickly. Incidentally, the link next to the review is a fake.
The website does not include Sinhalese. One computer dictionary that can be bought is Madura, and it requires knowledge of the script. Free sinhalese dictionary opens new browser window [ Nice little book even though the language is crazy to try to learn.
Good product. See all 5 reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway. This item: Lonely Planet Sinhala Phrasebook. Set up a giveaway.
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Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. The World Health Organization WHO predicts that diabetes will become the 7th leading cause of death in the world by the year [ 3 ].
Similar to most chronic noncommunicable diseases, adequate management of diabetes is also dependent on proper medication adherence. It is very important to encourage medication adherence for a better outcome of the disease. One of the primary steps in improving medication adherence is reliably and accurately measuring adherence [ 6 ]. Several methods are available for the assessment of adherence; however, accurate measurement continues to be difficult and each available method has its own advantages and disadvantages [ 7 ].
Medication adherence assessment methods are categorized as direct and indirect, with direct methods including measurement of the level of the target drug or metabolite in the blood, measurement of a biological marker in the blood, and directly observed therapy [ 7 ]. Most commonly used indirect methods include patient self-reports via a validated questionnaire, pill counts, and pharmacy refills [ 7 ].
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Although direct methods are considered to be more robust than indirect methods, they also have limitations, including the practical application in clinical settings.
Self-reported instruments are considered to be convenient, inexpensive, easy to administer, and effective. One of the most widely used and accepted patient self-reported instruments is the Brief Medication Questionnaire BMQ [ 8 ].
It consists of three different screens, a 5-item regimen screen, a 2-item belief screen, and a 2-item recall screen. These screens assess how patients took each of their medications in the past week, on drug efficacy and bothersome features and remembering difficulties, respectively [ 8 ].
Svarstad et al. The original English version of BMQ has been validated in patients with hypertension [ 9 ]. The BMQ has also been validated for use in several countries and has been found to be a valid and reliable scale to measure adherence in patients with diabetes, epilepsy, and myocardial infarction [ 7 ]. It has been translated to Tamil [ 10 ].
However, a validated Sinhala version of the BMQ is not currently available for use in patients with diabetes. Hence, the present study aims at translating and validating the Sinhalese version of the BMQ in patients with diabetes. Based on evidence from previous research, a subject-item ratio of 15 was used to calculate the sample size [ 12 ]. A systematic random-sampling method of eligible patients was used to select participants until the required sample size was achieved.
The study team visited the medical clinics of the University Medical Unit, twice per week. On each day of the visit, we obtained a list of the patients with diabetes from the clinic register. From this list, the first patient was selected randomly, and thereafter every 3rd patient was selected for the study and recruited after confirming eligibility.
Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to recruitment for the study. The self-reported scale consists of three different screens, a 5-item regimen screen, a 2-item belief screen, and a 2-item recall screen. In addition, we also collected the sociodemographic data of study participants, including age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, occupation, and monthly income.
Furthermore, in order to evaluate the relationship between the level of adherence and glycaemic control, we evaluated the glycosylated haemoglobin HbA1c of the participants. Monthly income was grouped into three categories: Translation and cultural adaption was carried out following steps recommended by the WHO for the translation and adaptation of study instruments [ 14 ].
This five-step process includes a forward translation, b review of translation by experts, c back translation, d pretesting, and e producing the final version.
The initial forward translation, from English to Sinhala was done by an independent translator, whose mother language was Sinhalese, who is familiar with terminology of the area covered by the instrument. The panel included the original translator, experts in pharmacology PG and diabetes PK and GRC , and those with experience in instrument development and translation PR. The panel also modified the individual questions in order to achieve a cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. In the third stage using the same approach as that outlined in the first step, the instrument was translated back to English by an independent second translator, who has no knowledge of the original BMQ questionnaire.
Discrepancies in the back translation were discussed with the expert panel, and further work was carried out until a satisfactory Sinhalese experimental version of the BMQ questionnaire was produced.
The translated experimental Sinhalese BMQ questionnaire in stage three was pretested in a sample of 10 patients with diabetes. This subset of patients was recruited from a different medical clinic other than from where patients were recruited for validation.
The sample represented both males and females from different socioeconomic groups. After filling the questionnaire, each respondent was individually interviewed, where the respondents were asked what they thought the questions were asking, whether they could repeat the questions in their own words and what came to their mind when they heard a particular phrase or term. Respondents were also asked about any word they did not understand as well as any word or expression that they found unacceptable.
A written report of the pretesting exercise, together with selected information regarding the participating individuals, was provided to the expert panel.
The final Sinhala version of the BMQ was produced after the completion of all the steps described above. This version was used during data collection for the validation study Annexure 1. Data were collected during a period of 8 months in the medical clinics of the University Medical Unit at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka.
The questionnaire on sociodemographic data age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, and monthly income and illness-related data was filled by the investigator and then the Sinhalese version of the self-reported BMQ was given to the recruited patients for self-completion. The translated questionnaire validation included evaluation of internal consistency, temporal stability, and performance in regards to the gold standards.
It was assumed that content validity was performed by the authors of the original study.
For the analysis of temporal stability, 30 patients with stable therapeutic schemes were retested at an interval of 30 days. Concordance between test and retest was evaluated by a gamma correlation coefficient. Characteristics of the study population are also described according to the level of adherence identified by the BMQ.
For the comparisons, chi-square tests, t -tests and Mann—Whitney tests were used according to the distribution of variables. SPSS version The total number of subjects recruited for the study was Majority of the study participants were Sinhalese in ethnicity The mean duration of diabetes in the study population was Majority of the patients were on 2 drugs for the control of diabetes Sociodemographic and disease characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
Analysis of the internal consistency of the BMQ was performed in the patients recruited for the study. As the number of positive responses to the questionnaires increased, the specificity in screening for low adherence also increased in relation to the gold standard Table 2.
The overall BMQ score with a cutoff value of 2 for the score of problems identified by the BMQ presented better equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity for the gold standard.
This cutoff value can be utilized in screening for low adherence. Performance of the BMQ according to the gold standard. To study the relationship between adherence and sociodemographic and disease factors, we considered good adherence as a positive response in only 1 screen or negative responses to all questions in the 3 screens in the overall BMQ score.
Low adherence was considered as the positive responses in two or more screens in the overall BMQ score. Among sociodemographic characteristics, male gender was associated with good adherence, while age, education level, or monthly income was not significantly different between the two groups Table 3. Being only on one antidiabetic medication was associated with good adherence, while insulin therapy was associated with low adherence. The present study aimed at translating and validating the Sinhalese version of the Brief Medication Questionnaire BMQ for use in evaluating medication adherence in patients with diabetes.
The translation of the original BMQ to Sinhalese and validation were done following accepted standards [ 14 , 15 ]. The translated questionnaire demonstrated good reliability, temporal stability, and validity. The temporal stability test-retest reliability of the translated Sinhalese version of the BMQ was also evaluated. Similar results for temporal stability have been observed in previous studies validating translated versions of the BMQ [ 8 ].
The performance of the Sinhalese translation of the BMQ was evaluated using HbA1c as the gold standard for glycaemic control criterion validity.
The overall BMQ score with a cutoff value of 2 presented better equilibrium between sensitivity We were unable to identify previous studies evaluating BMQ in relation to control of blood glucose. This may be due to differences in the sample, culture, and the gold standard used. The results of the present study show that male gender and usage of only one antidiabetic medication was associated with good adherence, while insulin therapy was associated with low adherence.
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Adherence to antidiabetic medications is known to be associated with different factors, including age, duration and severity of disease, level of education, and monthly income [ 17 , 18 ]. For example, in a study conducted to evaluate medication adherence in Palestinian patients with diabetes, female gender was associated with good medication adherence, whereas the opposite was observed in the present analysis [ 17 ]. Jin et al. Hence, measurement of adherence using culturally validated measurement tools and identification of factors affecting low adherence in those different cultures are both equally important, in order to improve compliance and disease outcomes of a given population.
The present study has several limitations that need to be acknowledged. The lack of a practically acceptable gold standard to measure adherence was an important limiting factor.
MEMS medication bottles contain a microelectronic chip that registers the date and time of every bottle opening. In the present study, disease control as evaluated by HbA1c was used as the gold standard [ 8 ]. We also did not measure other confounding factors that could affect glycaemic control, such as dietary intake and physical activity.
However, it was assumed that these factors would be evenly distributed in a large population. The present study translated and validated the Sinhalese version of the Brief Medication Questionnaire, using accepted standard methods. Using culturally validated tools to evaluate adherence may help clinicians to identify low adherence and institute appropriate corrective measures to improve disease outcomes. Annexure 1: Sinhalese translation of the Brief Medication Questionnaire used for validation.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Diabetes Res v. J Diabetes Res. Published online May Ranasinghe , 1 R. Jayawardena , 2 P. Katulanda , 3 G.