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Environmental Science Free eBook, download free ebook, pdfdrive, pdfhive, environmental engineering, environmental issues, environmental. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, . study, research and application in Environmental Science and Engineering has. Study the environment and environmental science with this category of free eBooks. For instance, learn more about waste water treatment and atmospheric.

Contaminated groundwater is hazardous to the health of individuals and the environment at large. It is therefore essential to assess every water before it is deemed fit for human and wildlife consumption. One major threat to the quality of groundwater is open dumpsite. During decomposition of An e-book on global climate change I wrote in

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Provides consumers with information about the advantages of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles. An article on the official journal of the Herpetological Society of Japan and is a continuation of Acta Herpetologica Japonica and Japanese Journal of Herpetology Join Now Login. Sort by: Showing results: Apr Downloads: An educational ebook about Tornadoes in South Africa. PDF, ePub, Kindle.

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Raising cash crops for increased economy. Mining 5. Balances CO2 and O2 levels in atmosphere. Litter helps in maintaining soil fertility 6. Reduces soil erosion roots binding. Increase in population: The needs also increase and utilize forests resources.

Developmental Functions Employment functions Revenue Ecological significance of forests: Forest fires Safe habitat for birds.

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Causes for Deforestation: Food problems 2. Commercial logging: The occurrence and strength of floods and droughts affecting the economy. Bringing awareness among people ex: Chipko movement.

Floods leading to soil erosion 5. Most humid regions changes to desert Environmental pollution Avoids diversion of forest lands for other activities through acts like Forest Conservation Act and Wild life protection Act 8.

Heavy rainfall and high sunlight quickly damage the topsoil in clearings of the tropical rainforests. Heavy siltation of dams 7. Concepts in conservation 1. Where forests are replanted. Dessication of previously moist forest soil Destruction of resources 6. Recycling forest products 6. Global warming Conservation Conservation derived from two Latin words. Loss of biodiversity 9.

Control forest diseases and forest fire 5. Increasing CO2 4. Afforestation 4. Reforestation 3. The value of a forest is often higher when it is left standing than it could be worth when it is harvested. In such circumstance. Deforestation can cause the climate to become extreme in nature. Restraining cutting of trees and submerging the forests 2. The stress of environmental change may make some species more susceptible to the effect of insects.

Loss of future markets for ecotourism. Fewer trees results an insecure future for forest workers Replacing forest products 7. Changes in the microclimate 8. Narmada Bachao Andolan 9. Local people will only support greening an area if they can see some economic benefits from conservation.

Some states have stopped grazing completely. Another resolution in provided a formal structure for community participation though the formation of village forest communities VFS. Until In many states. While others have rotational grazing schemes that have helped in forest regeneration. Realising this. Orrisa and Tripura. An informal arranagement between local communities and the forest department began in They participate in restoring the green cover and protect the area from being over — exploited.

The various states have tried a variety of approaches to JSM. Based on this experience. From the initiation of the program. Under JFM schemes. These are classified as salt-tolerant evergreen forests.

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Amrita Devi. Local women led by a Bishnoi woman. The specific regions where these plants occur are termed as 'mangrove ecosystem'.

The movement followed the path the Bishnoi women had taken three centuries ago in Rajasthan. The women were ruthlessly massacred. Mangroves are salt-tolerant plants of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions of the world.

The story. It is said that the ruler later realised his mistake. Case Study: Chipko Movement From Barucha About years ago. The ability of local women to band together in the foothills of the Himalayas goes back to the preindependence days when women such as Miraben. They also appreciated that substitution of oak and other broad-Leaved forests of the Himalayas with the planting of fast-growing pine for timber and resin was an ecological and social disaster which reduced the forest resources used by traditional hill communities.

These are highly productive wood. Chipko activists have made long padyatras across the Himalayas protesting against deforestation. The movement has proved to the world that the forests of the hills are the life-support systems of local communities and of immense value in terms of local produce. Chipko is a movement primarily begun and supported by local women in the hills of Uttarakhand and Garhwal. As the experiences have proved that the presence of mangrove ecosystems on coastline save lives and property during natural hazards such as cyclones.

Nigeria and Mexico together account for around 50 percent of the total global mangrove area. Rest of the mangrove ecosystems are comparatively smaller. They are habitats for many animals like crocodiles and snakes. Besides mangroves. In Ecuador. If deforestation of mangroves continues.

A wide range of fish and shellfish also depends on these coastal forests and mangroves help to protect coral reefs against siltation from upland erosion.

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FAO cited high population pressure. The total mangrove area has declined from Tourism would also suffer. The distribution of mangrove ecosystem on Indian coastlines indicates that the Sundarban mangroves occupy very large area followed by Andaman-Nicobar Islands and Gulf of Kachch in Gujarat.

The rate of mangrove loss is significantly higher than the loss of any other types of forests. Asia suffered the largest net loss of mangroves since Over plant and animal species have been identified from these areas. The world has lost around 3. A Senior Forestry Officer reported that part of the largest mangrove area in the world.

Water has been harvested in India since the dawn of civilization. At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji. Main sources of water for our use are: India can be broadly divided into 15 ecological regions.

With an average annual rainfall of mm. Since ancient times. Mahabharata and various other Vedic. The vast ecological diversity of this country is reflected in the diversity in available water resources. Water is renewable resource. India is one of the wettest countries in the world.

The Ramayana. Buddhist and Jain texts contain several references to water harvesting structures in existence and water being revered as a life giving and sustaining force.

As per the National Commission on Agriculture. Out of million cu. At present more than one billion people on earth lack access to fresh drinking water.

Surface water: There are 14 major. This index is based on the minimum per capita level of water required to maintain an adequate quality of life in a moderately developed arid zone country. Consumption Patterns Today. Though the average rainfall is adequate. India has the largest irrigation infrastruc ture in the world. If per capita water availability is any indication.

Given the projected increase in population by the year At the global level. India's groundwater resources are almost ten times its annual rainfall. The annual per capita availability of renewable freshwater in the country has fallen from around Global consumption of water is doubling every 20 years. The United Nations has estimated that by the year India is expected to face critical levels of water stress by If it falls below cu. Many agriculturists use more water than necessary to grow crops.

There are countries that share the waters of 13 large rivers and lakes. Around 20 major cities in India face chronic or interrupted water shortages. Examples are Ethiopia. The upstream countries could starve the downstream nations leading to political unstable areas across the world. Is essential for all forms of life. Industries in order to maximize short-term economic gains does not bother its liquid waste and releases it into streams.

No plant or animal species can survive without water. This will lead to multiple conflicts between countries over the sharing of water. International accords that will look at a fair distribution of water in such areas will become critical to world peace.

Many uses of water include agricultural. The total annual freshwater withdrawals today are estimated at cubic kilometers. Reasons for decline of ground water Population continues to rise at an unprecedented and unsustainable rate. Use of more water than really needed by human beings. The building construction activities are sealing the permeable zone. Rain fall: The erratic and inadequate rainfall results in reduction in storage in subsurface reservoirs.

Forest cover permits water to be held in the area permitting it to seep into the ground. Once hill slopes are denuded of forest cover.

But large dams have proved to cause catastrophic environmental damage. Large dams are designed to control floods and to help the drought prone areas. Nations situated in tropical climates including India experience disastrous floods caused by the indiscriminate deforestation of the slopes above the valleys.

Dams ensure a year round supply of water for domestic use and provide extra water for agriculture. The removal of dense and uniform cover over the hilly zones leads to occurrence of floods in drainage basins. Some of the problems are mentioned below. The destruction of forests influence the regulation of natural water cycle. Large amount of water is used for generating power which other wise used for human needs.

This soil and water management and afforestation are long-term measures that reduce the impact of droughts. Hence an attempt has been made to construct small dams. Multiple small dams have less impact on the environment. It can be unequivocally stated that dams have made significant contributions to human development and the benefits derived from them have been considerable.

This can be used in drought years if the stores have been filled during a good monsoon. They alter river flows. This charges the underground stores of water in natural aquifers. People living in the catchment area. Thousands of people who have been resettled are. Narmada River Dams. A case filed with the Indian Supreme Court stopped construction for nearly six years. The Narmada Valley Development Project include 30 major dams and 3.

About people would be displaced for the reservoir. Irrigation to support cash crops like sugarcane produces an unequal distribution of water. For over a decade. Effective rainwater harvesting in urban environments 7. Soil management. The arid Kutch region will not receive any water supply benefits until The project is supposed to irrigate 1.

Faced with these future prospects. Although the legal framework requires that affected people be given land-for-land compensation. Domestically use water by VED principle. Use waste water for activities that does not need fresh water — Recycling Protect existing tanks Sustainable Water Management 1.

Preventing leakages form dams and canals and loss in municipal pipes 6. People affected by the extensive canal system are not considered as projectaffected people and are not entitled to the same resettlement and compensation packages as those living in the reservoir area.

Treating and recycling municipal waste water for agricultural use. Through rainwater harvesting. Building several small reservoirs instead of few mega projects 2. In deforested areas where land has been degraded. Develop systematic water management and adopt strict water auditing Water conservation measures in agriculture. Responsible water usage can only be achieved by empowering local communities and creating local accountability. The project is expected to generate only 50MW of MW planned after seasonal water flow and power consumption for pumping water is accounted for.

Adopt mini water harvesting models for domestic usage. There are no credible environmental studies or rehabilitation plans. Developing small catchment dams and protecting wetlands 3.

Pricing water at its real value makes people use it more responsibility and efficiently and reduces wastage 9. World Water Day.. Current wheat production is estimated to decline to million tons by yet The report. The government should develop policies that protect water resources.. Soybean is the only crop showing an increase in global production. Each person must have access to it. It is estimated that 18 million people worldwide. Poor environmental agricultural practices such as slash and burn.

Modern agricultural practices have resulted in a serious loss of genetic variability of crops. Salinization and water logging has affected a large amount of agricultural land worldwide. Food security: It is the ability of all people at all times to access enough food for an active and healthy life. World Food Problems and Environmental Concerns: Food production in 64 of the developing countries is lagging behind their population growth levels. Water scarcity is an important aspect of poor agricultural outputs.

Globally 5 to 7 million hectares of farmland is degraded each year. Most of these have been lost to the farmer during the last few decades as multinational seed companies push a few commercial types. Loss of nutrients and overuse of agricultural chemicals are major factors in land degradation. Food must be available.

The following 3 conditions must be fulfilled to ensure food security. Some communities such as tribal people still face serious food problems leading to malnutrition especially among women and children. The earth can only supply a limited amount of food.

This creates a risk to our food security. A cereal that has multiple varieties growing in different locations does not permit the rapid spread of a disease. Shift from chemical agriculture to organic farming. The most effective method to introduce desirable traits into crops is by using characteristics found in the wild relatives of crop plants.

A major concern is the support needed for small farmers so that they remain farmers rather than shifting to urban centers as unskilled industrial workers. Food security is only possible if food is equitably distributed to all. Pollution of water sources. As the wilderness shrinks. This eventually places great stress on our environmental resources. Once they are lost. Food security is closely linked with population control through the family welfare program.

International trade policies in regard to an improved flow of food across national borders from those who have surplus to those who have a deficit in the developing world is another issue that is a concern for planners who deal with International trade concerns.

It is also linked to the availability of water for farming. Scientists now believe that the world will soon need a second green revolution to meet our future demands of food based on a new ethic of land and water management that must be based on values which include environmental sensitivity. Many of us waste a large amount of food carelessly. Most importantly food supply is closely linked to the effectiveness of population control programs worldwide.

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Adopting soil conservation measures. The most economical way to prevent loss of genetic diversity is by expanding the network and coverage of our Protected Areas. Collections in germplasm. If plant genetic losses worldwide are not slowed down. Food can be innovatively produced if we break out of the current agricultural patterns. As people change from eating grain to meat.

World Food Day — October 16th. Today the world is seeing a changing trend in dietary habits. These disparities need to be corrected. Of course. This includes. This crop grown in the Western Ghats now has no market and is thus rarely grown. Only local people use this nutritious crop themselves. As living standards are improving. We must not only provide food for all. Women and girls frequently receive less food than the men. Popularising this crop could add to food availability from marginal lands.

Working on new avenues to produce food. Using unfamiliar crops such as Nagli. Several foods can be popularized from yet unused seafood products such as seaweed as long as this is done at sustainable levels. Educating women about nutrition. It is thus not as extensively cultivated as in the past. When the former sovient Union diverted the Ama Dariya and the Syr Dariya the rivers which fed the Aral Sea to grow cotton in the desert.

All of this was done in the name of cotton grow where it would not grow naturally. In fact. Drinking water in the region contains four times more salt per liter than the recommended by the world health organization.

But by s the annual flow of fresh water into the Aral was barely one-tenth of the supply. The Aral Sea is not an example of a success in water resource management. What was the fourth biggest inland sea is now mostly desert. Tuberculosis has reached epidemic proportions. Energy utilization is an index of economic development.

Aral sea was divided into a smaller northern sea and a large southern one. From to The decline of the fish populations in turn. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Sun is the primary source of energy. The lakebed sediments that are now exposed on the desert floor become airborne quite easily. In The children of Muynak have made a playground out of the wrecks of ships. Joule is the standard unit of energy in SI units. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in Benny Joseph.

Pesticides and fertilizers have also found their way into water and irrigation channels. The change in water chemistry wiped out huge populations of fish. Experts say the disaster has left behind a 36 km2 area of seabed covered with accumulated salts.

The worsening health and environmental problems of people living the Aral Sea basin. This has caused increases in kidney disease. The salinity level increased. The world is getting increasingly smaller and the problems require multinational solutions. Cotton production soared. Case study. The ancient ecosystem whose energy is now stored as fossil fuels. Other exciting energy sources are currently untapped.

There are also energy types that are not new but are simply untapped. Solar Power Hydro power Fuel cells Bio. With effective insulation and ventilation it is possible to heat many building types by the heat energy of their occupants alone. Sources of Energy Solar energy drives the following: Wave power Hydroelectric power Solar heating and Solar lighting The global ecosystems which give as biomass power such as wood or muscle.

Types of Energy Energy resources can be described as renewable. From to population increased by 3 times while energy consumption by 14 times! Energy Resources All energy sources ultimately come from the sun. Geothermal power from the heat of lower crust. There are undoubtedly energy types we have not yet discovered.

The earth itself is the key source of energy such as the following: The average human beings give of f 60 watts of heat by simply standing in a room.

The relatively recent discovery of radiation remains us that novel discoveries will continue to happen. The non. The supplies are not exactly renewable but they will lost for a very long time because a great of electricity is produced from a small amount of radioactive material. Other renewable like solar and wind power are available for the foreseeable future without any human intervention.

In general. Sustainable energy is a term sometimes applied to nuclear power. The key characteristics of renewable energies is that the energy sources are continually available. The future will most likely to be a mix of sources with increase in emphasis on the renewable. Burning coal also produces oxides of sulphur and nitrogen which. Environmental Impacts of fossil fuels in general Fossil fuels. Oil slicks are caused at sea from offshore oil wells.

The processes of oil and natural gas drilling. Coal and Its Environmental Impacts: Oil powered vehicles emit carbon dioxide. Running petrol vehicles with unleaded fuel has been achieved by adding catalytic converters on all the new cars. Accidental fires that may go on burning for days or weeks before the fire can be controlled.

Dependence on dwindling fossil fuel resources. Extraction of fuel by mining. Oil and Its Environmental Impacts: Wastewater and leachates from mining. Transportation of fuels to energy production sites uses fuel causes air pollution and possibly a pollution risk. Many coal-based power generation plants are not fitted with devices such as electrostatic precipitators to reduce emissions of suspended particulate matter SPM which is a major contributor to air pollution.

Purification or modification of raw products for use as fuels requires energy. Natural gas: Is a mixture of methane. This has impacts on the environment due to disposal of nuclear waste. Impacts on the environment The rods need to be changed periodically. Waste such as cooling water from nuclear power and fuel reprocessing plants can cause radioactive pollution in the surrounding environment.

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The radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants remains highly toxic for centuries. Natural gas is in abundance. The nuclear power industry however was born in the late s. The control rods absorb neutrons and thus adjust the fission which releases energy due to the chain reaction in a reactor unit. The cost of Nuclear Power generation must include the high cost of disposal of its waste and the decommissioning of old plants.

Uranium fuel used in nuclear power stations mining can cause high levels of pollution in the surrounding environment. Most of our natural gas is linked to oil and.

Among the fossil fuels coal is most harmful to the environment. The nuclear reactors use Uranium to produce electricity. This kills forest vegetation.

The heat energy produced in the reaction is used to heat water and produce steam. Transport of uranium and nuclear fuels carries potential pollution and environmental contamination risks. There are deposits of thorium in Kerala and Tamilnadu. As the nucleus split. Energy released from 1kg of Uranium is equivalent to that produced by burning 3.

They found that they could split the nucleus of a uranium atom by bombarding it with neutrons. The first large-scale nuclear power plant in the world became operational in in Pennsylvania.

There are currently no safe ways to either store this waste or dispose of it permanently. The reaction releases very hot waste water that damages aquatic ecosystems. Propane and butane are liquified and removed as LPG and Methane is cleaned and pumped in to pipelines. India has uranium mines in Bihar. Homi Bhabha was the father of Nuclear Power development in India.

Uranium U is made into rods which are fitted into a nuclear reactor. Large dumps are required to dispose off this waste material. The disposal of nuclear waste is becoming an increasingly serious issue. Energy that is trapped inside each atom is nuclear energy. It is an ideal fuel transition from fossil fuels to renewable sources.

These have high economic as well as ecological costs that are not taken into account when developing new nuclear installations.

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Decommissioning an old plant costs more than the original construction cost! Renewable Energy: Renewable energy systems use resources that are constantly replaced and are usually less polluting. We also get renewable energy from burning trees and even garbage as fuel and processing other plants into biofuels.

Hydropower generation worldwide increased seven times. Renewable energy technologies will improve the efficiency and cost of energy systems. Conflicts over land use are inevitable. The reservoir drown large areas of farm land.

Hydroelectric Power: We may reach the point when we may no longer rely mostly on fossil fuel energy. These lands traditionally provided a livelihood for local tribal people and farmers. Low level waste can be stored safely for — years while the high level wastes remains radioactive for Although hydroelectric power has led to economic progress around the world.

While it does not pollute air or water routinely like oil or biomass. This gives rise to conflicts. These include domestic requirements. Between and Mining creates environmental problems. Biomass Energy: Biomass is organic material which has stored sun light in the form of chemical energy. There is a great possibility of this occurring around the Tehri dam in the Himalayan foothills.

The development of small hydroelectric power units could become a very important resource in India. Some PV cells. Because plants and trees depend on sunlight to grow. PV systems also of course only work when the sun is shining. Solar cells are made of silicon which. The major problem with solar energy is its intermittent nature. Although wood is the largest source of biomass energy.

With large dams causing social problems. Solar Energy: Non conventional source of energy and non polluting. If it was possible to harness this colossal quantum of energy.

Is PV cells are environment friendly? PV cells are environmentally benign. Biogas is produced from plant material and animal waste. Several methods were developed for collecting this energy for heating water and generating electricity. The opposition to many large hydroelectric schemes is growing as most dam projects have been unable to resettle people that were affected and displaced.

Readily available source of energy and is free.

Environmental Impacts: Wind power has few environmental impacts. Five nations Germany. Some years ago. It is a mixture of gases which includes methane. Denmark and California have large wind turbine cooperatives which sell electricity to the government grid. London has a plant which makes 30 megawatts of electricity a year from In Germany.

Although large areas of land are required for setting up wind farms. Solar water heating panels Wind Power: Wind was the earliest energy source used for transportation by sailing ships.

With a ton of food waste. The rest of the area can also be used for agricultural purposes or for grazing.

It is also used for running dual fuel engines. The principal problems are bird kills. Setting windmills offshore reduces their demand for land and visual impact. In this mixture. These biogas plants use cow dung Gobar gas. Biogas plants have become increasingly popular in India in the rural sector. Wind is an intermittent source.

The power in wind is a function of the wind speed and therefore the average wind speed of an area is an important determinant of economically feasible power. Denmark produces a large quantity of biogas from waste and produces Wind speed increases with height. Wind energy produces electricity at low cost. Once used. Afghanistan and Persia to draw water for irrigation and grinding grain. M of biogas. Wind Farms — cluster of wind turbines aero generators to charge large batteries. Most of the early work on generating electricity from wind was carried out in Denmark.

Core of the earth is very hot — as high as C. Geothermal Energy: Residual drift current could affect spawning of some fish. Environmental impact: Water from geothermal reservoirs often contains minerals that are corrosive and polluting and they may be toxic to fishes. With modern technology. They may also affect the migration patterns of surface swimming fish. From the s. Wind therefore cannot be used as the sole resource for electricity.

Geothermal energy is nearly as cheap as hydropower and will thus be increasingly utilised in future. Tidal and Wave Power: The energy of waves in the sea that crash on the land of all the continents is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts of energy. This is another developing concept to harnesses energy due to the differences in temperature between the warm upper layers of the ocean and the cold deep sea water.

Thermal Energy: Ocean collects and store huge quantities of solar radiations in the form of heat. Tidal power is tapped by placing a barrage across an estuary and forcing the tidal flow to pass through turbines. This is called direct use of geothermal energy. Geothermal energy starts with hot. Steam contains H S gas which 2 gives rotten egg smell and cause air pollution. A tidal power station at the mouth of a river blocks the flow of polluted water into the sea.

Geothermal fluids are a problem which must be treated before disposal. Water flows from a higher level to lower level.

Tidal power stations bring about major ecological changes in the sensitive ecosystem of coastal regions and can destroy the habitats and nesting places of water birds and interfere with fisheries.

In a two way system power is generated from both the incoming as well as the outgoing tide. Other drawbacks include offshore energy devices posing navigational hazards. In a one-way system the incoming tide is allowed to fill the basin through a sluice. The soil is enriched by the leaf litter of the forest. World wide 5 -7 m ha farm land is being degraded annually.

Biological processes: Reduction in total and biomass carbon and decline in land biodiversity. Mechanisms that initiate land degradation include Physical processes: It is the decline in land quality or reduction in its productivity or production potential caused by human activities.

Land on earth is as finite as any of our other natural resources. Causes for land degradation: Soil types are red soil. Intensive irrigation leads to water logging and salinisation. The use of more and more chemical fertilizers poisons the soil so that eventually the land becomes unproductive. Scientists today believe that at least 10 percent of land and water bodies of each ecosystem must be kept as wilderness for the long term needs of protecting nature and natural resources. It is. This is a serious loss and has long term ill effects on human civilization.

Chemical processes: Ana vision. Land is also converted into a non-renewable resource when highly toxic industrial and nuclear wastes are dumped on it. As urban centers grow and industrial expansion occurs.

To prevent the loss of millions of tons of valuable soil every year. It is equally important to reforest denuded areas. The roots of trees and grasses bind the soil. If forests are depleted. It is a process where in fertile lands become arid through land mismanagement or climate changes.

Land use planning is not a standardized procedure which is uniform in its application world wide its content is based on an initial regional or local situation analysis. It is land degradation occurring in arid. Differentiation of state holders and the gender approach are core principles in land use planning.

Land use planning: Land use planning is an iterative process based on the dialogue amongst all state holders aiming at the negotiation and decision for a sustainable form of land use.

Land use planning creates the prerequisite required to achieve a type of land use. Causes of desertification: By pounding the soil with their hooves. Many deserts in the world are man. Land use planning should consider following principles. It should take into account traditional strategies and local environmental knowledge.

The current rate of desertification is around 15 million acres per year. The ecological. Planning approaches often fail because global models and implementation strategies are applied and taken over automatically and uncritically. Globally around 2 billion acres of land have become deserts in the past 50 years. Desertification is taking place much faster worldwide than historically and usually arises from the demands of increased populations that settle on the land in order to grow crops and graze animals.

It should aim at finding solutions for present problems soil erosion.

Thar desert in Rajasthan covers about Further losses of our soil wealth will impoverish our country and reduce its capacity to grow enough food in future. Desertification can be checked by artificial bunds or covering the area with proper type of vegetation. Crop rotation and mixed cropping improve the fertility of the soil. Saline soil can be recovered by leaching with more water. At a critical point. And no natural resource is limitless.

A major impact of desertification is biodiversity loss. Shifting of sand can be controlled by mulching use of artificial protective covering. Livestock pressure on marginal lands accelerates desertification. Loss of vegetation results in surface run off as there are no plants to bind the soil and resulting in soil erosion and depletion of nutrients.

It would increase production which can sustain large population. In extreme cases. Energy conservation. Afforestation and planting of soil binding grasses can check soil erosion. Control of desertification 1. Both factors are the results of choices we make as individuals. Salinity of the soil can be checked by improved drainage. Grazing and the collection of firewood reduce or eliminate plants that help to bind the soil.

Biological systems cannot go on replenishing resources if they are overused or misused. Biodiversity or Biological diversity is defined as the variability among all living organisms from all sources.