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What are character variables?
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A function is a block of code that has a name. Whenever that name is used the function is called, which means that the code within that function is executed.
Functions may also be called with values, known as parameters, which may be used inside the body of the function.
CBSE - Class 12 - Multimedia and Webtech
When control comes across such a statement, it immediately jumps out of the current function and gives the returned value to the code that called the function. When using the return statement, the function will stop executing, and return the specified value. The parameters to a function behave like regular variables, but their initial values are given by the caller of the function, not the code in the function itself. When you call a function, you can pass along some values to it, these values are called parameters or arguments.
Parameters are the variables we specify when we define the function. When the function is later called somewhere else in the code, arguments are the values passed as parameters. You can specify as many parameters as you like, separated by commas ,. The parameters then serve as variables that can be used inside the function.
The function above will display the message box "Welcome Navya Singhal to my website! The variables or parameters which accept the actual variables inside the function are called formal variables. Each function definition contains an argument list called the formal argument list. Items in the list are optional, so the actual list may be empty or it may contain any combination of data types such as inteter, float and character.
Here, myName is a formal arguments. They are called formal because actual parameter values are supplied to the function by the calling program, and formal parameters use the copy of those actual parameters. The variables which are associated with function name during function call are called actual variables.
Any variables created inside a loop are treated as local scope or local variables to the loop. This means that once you exit the loop, the variable can no longer be accessed. This includes any variables created in the loop signature. Let us see following two examples: Example In Example 1, i can only be used inside the for loop. In Example 2, you are free to use i inside the loop as well as outside the loop because it was declared outside the loop it has been declared as method scope.
You may use a local variable completely within a function definition. Its scope is then limited to the function itself, i. The variable is said to be accessible or visible within the function only and has a local scope. Here in line, document. You can have local variables with the same name in different functions, because local variables are only recognized by the function in which they are declared. Following are some of the features of local variables: That is, the local variables are not known outside of their own code block.
Here, the integer variable a is declared twice, once in fun1 and once in fun2 , but the a in fun1 has no effect on function fun2. This is because a is known only to the code within the block in which it is declared. Local variables are deleted from memory as soon as the function is completed x We can also declare local variables inside any code block that is nested inside another code block.
For example, consider the following function: Here, the local variable guess is created at the entry of the function fun and so its scope remains until the terminating curly brace of the function fun is encountered. However, the local variable age is created upon entry into the if code block and destroyed upon the exit from the if block.
That is, age is known only within the if block and cannot be referenced elsewhere within the outer block i. We can initialize the local variable to some value. Now, this value will be assigned to the variable each time we will enter the block of code in which it was declared, no matter if the value is later modified in the block. If you try to access the local variable outside the method, the compiler would flag it as an error.
However, the same variable name can be declared within several different methods without there being a conflict. For example, need to use window object. Then the local variable hides the global variable, You can access it through i. For to the global variable.
The expression can include variables and properties of existing objects. This function encodes the string passed to it so that it can be used across any network, say, for example, in query strings.
For example, document. This method is used to decode the encoded strings and returns the ASCII string for the specified value. This function determines whether the value of a variable is a legal number or not.
This function is remembered as short form is Is Not a Number. This function returns true if the data is string and returns false if the data is a number. Here is one simple example to check one string. The function is better use in if condition to check to display a message accordingly.
This function is used to convert strings to numbers. This function can only convert strings which are in the form of numbers and it can't change any alphabet or strings. If there is no number at the beginning of the string, "NaN" not a number is returned. Here, numString is string to convert into a number. This function is used to convert strings to float numbers. Using this function, we can only convert string numbers to numeric data but we can't convert alphabetic characters.
Here, numString is string that contains a floating-point number to convert into a number. The parseFloat function returns a numerical value equal to the number contained in numString. If no prefix of numString can be successfully parsed into a floating-point number, NaN not a number is returned. This function is used to round off any number with decimal place to an integer value by using round function. If the decimal portion of the number is equal or greater than.
We can format math number by using round function. Here is an example to format upto two decimal places. This function is used ceil of a number to the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to given number. So by using this we can get the next higher integer of a given number. This function is used to get the floor of a number or the largest integer which is equal to or lower than the given number.
You have several optional parameters that we may send to the Date object as follows: Once you have created a Date object, you can then use the many Date methods to get or set the month, day, year, hours, minutes or seconds of this instance.
As with most object methods, you simply call a Date method as follows: There are two exceptions to this rule with the Date object: The UTC and parse methods are static methods and are always called with just the generic Date object name. For example, Date. UTC parameters Date. In Table 6. One is get method and the other is set method.
The get method allows you to retrieve information from the current Date object. This information can be seconds, minutes, hours, days of the month, days of the week, months or years. You can change the dates, months, years, hours, The getMonth returns a minutes, seconds of the Date object. All of these methods require number between 0 and 11; if integers. Although you will probably use the get methods more often, you want to show the month to these methods are handy when you want to quickly create a date and your site's visitors, to be user- timeperhaps for displaying on a page with a modification date.
This function combines one or more strings arguments str1, str2, etc. Original string is not modified. Here, str1 is the original string which holds the string of str1, str2 and Class - XI. The final result of str1 will be: This function searches and if found returns the index number of the searched character or substring within the string. If not found, -1 is returned. Start is an optional argument specifying the position within string to begin the search.
Default is 0. Searches the string from end to beginning. Default is string. Here substr is a string or a character whose position will be searched in string str. This function returns the length of a string. The String object only has one property lengthwhich is read only.
You use the length property to return the length of a string only: You cannot change it externally. This function returns the characters in a string beginning at start and through the specified number of characters, length. Length is optional, and if omitted, up to the end of the string is assumed. Substring is: CBSE Multimedia. This function returns the characters in a string between from and to indexes, NOT including to itself.
To is optional, and if omitted, up to the end of the string is assumed. This method is used to generate a new string with lowercase letters. The method returns a new string containing the converted string and the original string is unchanged. Lowercase string is: This method is used to generate a new string with uppercase letters. Like toLowerCase method, toUpperCase also returns a new string containing the converted string and the original string is unchanged. Uppercase string is: This method is used to convert a number to string.
Original string is: This method returns the primitive value of an object.
These objects are:. The value null. The value undefined. All numbers, such as 0 and 3. Also NaN, and Infinity. The values true and false. All strings, such as "master" and "". Number is: A function which does not accept any values must have the name of the function followed by an empty set of parentheses. A variable declared inside a function is local to that method and cannot be used outside it.
Variables that are declared inside an opening curly brace and a terminating curly brace are termed as local variables. A global variable is visible to all functions and is declared outside all functions. The variables or parameters , which accept the actual variables inside the function are called formal variables. The variables, which are associated with function name during function call, are called actual variables.
What is a function? A set of operations which is part of a program and can be executed independently is called a function. What are the types of functions? Functions are of two types. What is a user-defined function? This function which is written by the programmer according to its need is known as user-defined function. How many times can function be called? Many times. What are function arguments? Arguments of a function is the data that the function receives when called from another function.
What is a local variable? What is a global variable? Global variables are the variables that are known throughout the program and may be used by any part of the program. They hold their value throughout the execution of the program.
What is formal variable? Formal variables are listed of variables that will accept different types of values being supplied to the function by the calling program. Formal parameters are declared after the function name and inside parentheses. What is an actual variable?
How will you call a function? Name the statement that sends back a value from a function. How many values can be returned by a function? When is the execution of the function terminated?
Conditional or selection. Out of two instructions, only one will be executed successfully depending on the condition. Because the condition produces a result as either True or False. Repetition or loop. The instruction s are repeated over a whole list whenever the condition is True. Figure 3. Statement 3 if condition is false. In this chapter, we will discuss about the conditional or brancking statements.
These are listed in Table 3. The condition includes any relational comparison and must be enclosed within parentheses. If the value of the condition is non-zero, then the body of if gets executed. Some of valid if statements are: The application should enter your age and display the message: Your age not more than If age is less than Solution The code is ifage.
For example, suppose you have declared a floating-point variable named MyPer and you want to print a message Grade A when the value of MyPer is greater than and equal to 80, otherwise print a message You have a different grade.
This is very useful to test various conditions using single if As you can see in this if else if ladder, conditions are evaluated from top. First Condition-1 will be evaluated and if this is true, the code inside the if block will be executed.
If Condition-1 is false, Condition- 2 will be evaluated. If Condition-2 is true, the code inside that else if block will be executed. If Condition- 2 is false, Condition-3 will be evaluated.
For example, if you have three numbers like this: Solution Write the following code in Notepad editor and save as greatest. The statement is a multiway branch statement. It provides an easy way to dispatch execution to different parts of your code based on the value of an expression.
The syntax for the switch statement is: Here, x The expression must be of integer, or character type and each of the values specified in the case statements must be of a type compatible with the expression.
If the expression matches the second case, value2, the statements that are usually under value2 execute. If none of the case expressions matches that of the switch expression, the default case block executes.
The examples of switch statements are: For example, to check for vowel characters, spaces and consonants, the switch structure is: The switch statement can be used to combine cases and executed as one. To do this, you can type two or more cases together. In the above example, if the value of letter is either A, a, E, e, I, i, O, o, U or u then number of vowels is incremented.
If you enter the month no. An if statement allows a program to choose whether or not to execute a statement. An if-else statement allows a program to do one thing if a condition is true and a different thing if the condition is false. If you omit the curly brackets in if condition, only the statement that immediately follows the condition would be executed. A switch statement can be implemented as a series of if-then statement.
An empty statement indicates that no action is to be repeated while some condition remains true. The switch statement handles a series of decisions in which a particular variable or expression is tested for values it may assume and different actions are taken. In most programs, it is necessary to include a break statement after the statements for each case.
Several cases can execute the same statements by listing the case labels together before the statements. The switch structure can only test for constant integral expressions.
What is a Boolean variable? A variable is referred to as Boolean if it can hold a value that is either true or false. What is a block? A block is the simplest type of structured statement. Its purpose is simply to group a sequence of statements into a single statement. The format of a block is: What is an if statement? Give its syntax.
It is an example of a branching or decision statement. How can the switch statement be replaced with a series of if-else statements? A switch statement can always be rewritten as a series of if-else statements by creating an if condition for each case value in the switch. The statements associated with each case value are executed in the appropriate if statement. It is very difficult to rewrite a switch statement that does not use a break statement at the end of each case.
Default clause is used to handle the case when no match of any case in the switch statement is found. What is the purpose of break statement in a loop? Break statement is used to terminate the loop. What is the purpose of break keyword while using Switch Case Statement? Illustrate with the help of an example.
A break statement in switch causes control to skip all the statements after it and jump to the next statement just after the switch block.
The following is a segment of program. Find the error in each of the following code segments and explain how to correct it. Missing break statement in the statements for the first case. Add a break statement at the end of the statements for the first case. Note that this is not necessarily an error if you want the statement of case 2: Give the output of the following code fragment: What will be the corresponding output of the following code segment if the Num value is ThirtyonlyForty only.
Help her to choose more appropriate statement out of if statement and Switch statement. Rewrite the following program code using a Switch statement. The code using a Switch statement is: Rewrite the following program code using an if statement.
Code using if statement is: Rewrite the following program code using switch statement: The switch statement is: Write the output of the following program: The output is outpute. The output is outputf. Point the errors in the following code and write the correct script.
The following code should print whether integer nVal is odd or even: What will be the output of the following program segment? Write equivalent switch statement for the following: Find the output of the following code: What is wrong with the following code fragment?
Using braces and correct indentation, rewrite it so that it produces correct output. Rewrite the following switch statement using if-else statements: An electronic shop has announced the following seasonal discounts on the purchase of certain items:.
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A repetition structure allows the programmer to perform an action that to be repeated until the given condition is true.
From the above factorial logic, the counter num increases till N and multiply with fact for finding the factorial of N. When the above steps are executed it will find the factorial as: The factorial of 10 is This ensures that the dowhile condition executes a Statement first. After the first execution of the Statement, it examines the Condition.
If the Condition is true, then it executes the Statement again. It will keep executing the Statement as long as the Condition is true.
Thus, this loop is also called an exit-controlled loop. The whole dowhile statement must end with a semicolon. Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Product details Paperback: Laxmi Publications Language: English ISBN What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a product review. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews.
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