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Comprehensive Multimedia and Web Technology Class XII: Ramesh Bangia, Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. Name / Submitted By, Ratings, Date Added, Download. Multimedia CBSE Class XII Multimedia and Web Technology Sample Question Paper for Exam -. Multimedia & Web Technology (Supplementery) Reduce - Free ebook easily done by visiting dubious web sites or downloading programs without valid "Class-XI" "Multimedia & Web Technology" Write the general rules for.

Database Tool: Using any toolcreating and saving table, defining primary key, inserting and deleting column, renaming column, inserting records, deleting records, modifying records, table relationships;. Wireless Technologies: Bluetooth, infrared, radio link, microwave link, radio link and satellite link;. Identifying computers and users over a network: Internet Applications: Open Source Concepts:

Write JavaScript statements to accomplish each of the following: Use only one statement. Write this statement in two different ways. What will be the output of the following program: The value of x is The value of y is 22 Write the results of the following JavaScript statements: The results are: Value of c: What will be the output of the following code segment?

The output is line: The statement is: Differentiate between confirm and alert methods. The confirm method of window object brings up a dialog box with Yes or No buttons and a user- specified message. The alert method brings up an alert dialog box. The JavaScript code is: What are variables?

Describe the five categories of the JavaScript.

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What is the use of SRC? What is the difference between single-line and multiline comments? How many data types are available in the JavaScript? What is the use of bitwise operator? What are keywords? What are the rules to be followed while naming the identifier? Classify the following into valid and invalid identifier: What are integer variables?

What are character variables?

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What are float-point variables? How will statements get terminated in JavaScript? Write a statement to declare three integers and store them in the variables x, y and z. Answer the following: Use type- casting to ensure that the remainder is also held by the float variable. Answer the following using JavaScript statement: Which of the following are invalid names and why?

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What value will be stored in different variables when the following JavaScript statements are executed? Is the line given below a valid comment? Correct the error, if any, in the following statements: What will be the output of the following statements: In each of the following cases, show how the comment can be placed in the JavaScript program: Give the output of the following program segment: What is the purpose of comments and indentation in a program? JavaScript F unctions Functions 2 2.

The basic statements, expressions and operators that were discussed in previous chapter is what computer scientists usually call primitives. Primitives are the building blocks from which more complex elements of a program are constructed. Functions and objects represent the highest level of organization within the JavaScript language.

A function is a block of code that will be executed when "someone" calls it. In JavaScript, we can define our own functions, called user-defined functions, or we can use built-in functions already defined in the JavaScript language.

We have already seen examples of built-in functions, such as: Functions are the central working units of JavaScript. A function definition is just a regular variable definition where the value given to the variable happens to be a function.

A function is a block of code that has a name. Whenever that name is used the function is called, which means that the code within that function is executed.

Functions may also be called with values, known as parameters, which may be used inside the body of the function.

Functions serve two purposes: Mouse clicks, button presses, text selection and other user actions can call JavaScript functions by including suitable tags in the HTML source for the page.

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JavaScript provides several ways of defining them: The basic syntax to create a function JavaScript is case sensitive. These are referred to as functions parameters or arguments. The code inside the function will be executed when "someone" calls the function.

The function can be called directly when an event occurs like when a user clicks a button , and it can be called from "anywhere" by JavaScript code. The reason for placing JavaScript functions in the HEAD section is the function must be defined and loaded into memory before the function can be called by JavaScript code or an event handler. The function contains one statement of code, to display a message box.

Solution Write the following code in Notepad editor and save as jfun Simultaneously the execution control returned back to JavaScript to execute the remaining statements. Example Write a JavaScript function to display the temperature value in an alert window. The code should enter the temperature value in an HTML text box. A JavaScript function can return a value using return statement.

The value returned can be a valid JavaScript type. A return statement determines the value the function returns.

When control comes across such a statement, it immediately jumps out of the current function and gives the returned value to the code that called the function. When using the return statement, the function will stop executing, and return the specified value. The parameters to a function behave like regular variables, but their initial values are given by the caller of the function, not the code in the function itself. When you call a function, you can pass along some values to it, these values are called parameters or arguments.

Parameters are the variables we specify when we define the function. When the function is later called somewhere else in the code, arguments are the values passed as parameters. You can specify as many parameters as you like, separated by commas ,. The parameters then serve as variables that can be used inside the function.

JavaScript passes values by reference, meaning that when you pass a value to a function, you are really just passing a value pointer to the function. A value pointer is just an address, similar to a house address on an envelope that gives information about how to find the house. If the function modifies that value, the value is changed for the entire script, not just the scope of the function.

The function above will display the message box "Welcome Navya Singhal to my website! The variables or parameters which accept the actual variables inside the function are called formal variables. Each function definition contains an argument list called the formal argument list. Items in the list are optional, so the actual list may be empty or it may contain any combination of data types such as inteter, float and character.

Here, myName is a formal arguments. They are called formal because actual parameter values are supplied to the function by the calling program, and formal parameters use the copy of those actual parameters. The variables which are associated with function name during function call are called actual variables.

When the program calls the function, an argument list is also passed to the function. This list is called the actual argument list. Example Write a JavaScript function to find the average of three numbers.

The three numbers should be treated as parameter to the function. Also, function should return the average and all details. The above declaration is called function expression. When the JavaScript parser sees a function in the main code flow, it assumes Function Declaration.

When a function comes as a part of a statement, it is a Function Expression. For instance, we could call the function and use the return value in the document. Write a JavaScript function called Fullname to concatenate two names and also display in third textbox. When scope of a variable is used in a method, the variable affects only that method.

The scope of a variable is that region of the program within which it can be used. The lifetime of a variable is the period during which it can be accessed. JavaScript has five kinds of variables: In the previous chapter, we declared different variables inside loops.

Any variables created inside a loop are treated as local scope or local variables to the loop. This means that once you exit the loop, the variable can no longer be accessed. This includes any variables created in the loop signature. Let us see following two examples: Example In Example 1, i can only be used inside the for loop. In Example 2, you are free to use i inside the loop as well as outside the loop because it was declared outside the loop it has been declared as method scope.

You may use a local variable completely within a function definition. Its scope is then limited to the function itself, i. The variable is said to be accessible or visible within the function only and has a local scope. Here in line, document. You can have local variables with the same name in different functions, because local variables are only recognized by the function in which they are declared. Following are some of the features of local variables: That is, the local variables are not known outside of their own code block.

Here, the integer variable a is declared twice, once in fun1 and once in fun2 , but the a in fun1 has no effect on function fun2. This is because a is known only to the code within the block in which it is declared. Local variables are deleted from memory as soon as the function is completed x We can also declare local variables inside any code block that is nested inside another code block.

For example, consider the following function: Here, the local variable guess is created at the entry of the function fun and so its scope remains until the terminating curly brace of the function fun is encountered. However, the local variable age is created upon entry into the if code block and destroyed upon the exit from the if block.

That is, age is known only within the if block and cannot be referenced elsewhere within the outer block i. We can initialize the local variable to some value. Now, this value will be assigned to the variable each time we will enter the block of code in which it was declared, no matter if the value is later modified in the block. If you try to access the local variable outside the method, the compiler would flag it as an error.

However, the same variable name can be declared within several different methods without there being a conflict. For example, need to use window object. Then the local variable hides the global variable, You can access it through i. For to the global variable.

Global variables, variables declared outside of a function, are deleted when you close the page. These functions perform themselvesf with other JavaScript statements. JavaScript function is a name, which is pre-written in the interpreter. Table 2. This function evaluates a string as a JavaScript statement or expression, and either executes it or returns the resulting value. A string representing a JavaScript expression, statement, or sequence of statements.

The expression can include variables and properties of existing objects. This function encodes the string passed to it so that it can be used across any network, say, for example, in query strings.

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For example, document. This method is used to decode the encoded strings and returns the ASCII string for the specified value. This function determines whether the value of a variable is a legal number or not.

This function is remembered as short form is Is Not a Number. This function returns true if the data is string and returns false if the data is a number. Here is one simple example to check one string. The function is better use in if condition to check to display a message accordingly.

This function is used to convert strings to numbers. This function can only convert strings which are in the form of numbers and it can't change any alphabet or strings. If there is no number at the beginning of the string, "NaN" not a number is returned. Here, numString is string to convert into a number. This function is used to convert strings to float numbers. Using this function, we can only convert string numbers to numeric data but we can't convert alphabetic characters.

Here, numString is string that contains a floating-point number to convert into a number. The parseFloat function returns a numerical value equal to the number contained in numString. If no prefix of numString can be successfully parsed into a floating-point number, NaN not a number is returned. This function is used to round off any number with decimal place to an integer value by using round function. If the decimal portion of the number is equal or greater than.

We can format math number by using round function. Here is an example to format upto two decimal places. This function is used ceil of a number to the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to given number. So by using this we can get the next higher integer of a given number. This function is used to get the floor of a number or the largest integer which is equal to or lower than the given number.

So by using floor we can get the floor value of an number. This function is used to get the power of an integer. The syntax is:. This function is used to get highest value from a set of numbers. The Date object is a built-in JavaScript object that enables you to conveniently work with dates and times. You can create a Date N o te object anytime you need to store a date, and use the Date object's methods to work with the date.

JavaScript dates are stored as Before using any of the date and time method, you must create the the number of milliseconds since Date object using new keyword.

You can also optionally specify the midnight, January 1, This date to store in the object when you create it. The Date object is date is called the epoch. Dates predefined in JavaScript and will build this instance filling in the current before weren't allowed in date and time from the clients system clock.

You have several optional parameters that we may send to the Date object as follows: Once you have created a Date object, you can then use the many Date methods to get or set the month, day, year, hours, minutes or seconds of this instance.

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As with most object methods, you simply call a Date method as follows: There are two exceptions to this rule with the Date object: The UTC and parse methods are static methods and are always called with just the generic Date object name. For example, Date. UTC parameters Date. In Table 6. One is get method and the other is set method.

The get method allows you to retrieve information from the current Date object. This information can be seconds, minutes, hours, days of the month, days of the week, months or years. You can change the dates, months, years, hours, The getMonth returns a minutes, seconds of the Date object. All of these methods require number between 0 and 11; if integers. Although you will probably use the get methods more often, you want to show the month to these methods are handy when you want to quickly create a date and your site's visitors, to be user- timeperhaps for displaying on a page with a modification date.

For friendly you should add 1 to the example, month after using getMonth. Create a JavaScript file and save as jfun Open the jfun Figue 2. JavaScript contains some basic string manipulation functions which are useful for JavaScript query. As we know, when we declare and manipulate strings in JavaScript, always write them with single quotes ' or double quotes " around them. This tells the browser that it's dealing with a string. Here, both a and b are two strings and declared in double quotes and single quotes.

But be careful, don't mix up the quotes. The JavaScript String object is a wrapper for text values. In addition to storing text, the String object includes a property and various methods to manipulate or gather information about text. The syntax of creating String object using new keyword is given below:. Here, new keyword is used to create instance of string. This function returns the character at the x position within the string. Here str is a string and x is the position where a character will extract.

This function combines one or more strings arguments str1, str2, etc. Original string is not modified. Here, str1 is the original string which holds the string of str1, str2 and Class - XI. The final result of str1 will be: This function searches and if found returns the index number of the searched character or substring within the string. If not found, -1 is returned. Start is an optional argument specifying the position within string to begin the search.

Default is 0. Searches the string from end to beginning. Default is string. Here substr is a string or a character whose position will be searched in string str. This function returns the length of a string. The String object only has one property lengthwhich is read only.

You use the length property to return the length of a string only: You cannot change it externally. This function returns the characters in a string beginning at start and through the specified number of characters, length. Length is optional, and if omitted, up to the end of the string is assumed. Substring is: CBSE Multimedia. This function returns the characters in a string between from and to indexes, NOT including to itself.

To is optional, and if omitted, up to the end of the string is assumed. This method is used to generate a new string with lowercase letters. The method returns a new string containing the converted string and the original string is unchanged. Lowercase string is: This method is used to generate a new string with uppercase letters. Like toLowerCase method, toUpperCase also returns a new string containing the converted string and the original string is unchanged. Uppercase string is: This method is used to convert a number to string.

Original string is: This method returns the primitive value of an object.

These objects are:. The value null. The value undefined. All numbers, such as 0 and 3. Also NaN, and Infinity. The values true and false. All strings, such as "master" and "". Number is: A function which does not accept any values must have the name of the function followed by an empty set of parentheses. A variable declared inside a function is local to that method and cannot be used outside it.

Variables that are declared inside an opening curly brace and a terminating curly brace are termed as local variables. A global variable is visible to all functions and is declared outside all functions. The variables or parameters , which accept the actual variables inside the function are called formal variables. The variables, which are associated with function name during function call, are called actual variables.

Functions are invoked in a program by writing the name of the function followed by the arguments of the method in parenthesis. The argument of a method may be a constant, a variable or an expression. Local variables, or variables declared within a function, are deleted when the function is completed. In JavaScript, the lifetime of a variable starts when the variable is declared.

What is a function? A set of operations which is part of a program and can be executed independently is called a function. What are the types of functions? Functions are of two types. What is a user-defined function? This function which is written by the programmer according to its need is known as user-defined function. How many times can function be called? Many times. What are function arguments? Arguments of a function is the data that the function receives when called from another function.

What is a local variable? What is a global variable? Global variables are the variables that are known throughout the program and may be used by any part of the program. They hold their value throughout the execution of the program.

What is formal variable? Formal variables are listed of variables that will accept different types of values being supplied to the function by the calling program. Formal parameters are declared after the function name and inside parentheses. What is an actual variable?

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How is it different from an actual argument list? Explain the difference between an actual parameter and a formal parameter. An actual parameter is the value or variable sent to a method when it is invoked. A formal parameter is the corresponding variable in the definition of the method; it takes on the value of the actual parameter so that it can be used inside the method. Are objects passed by value or by reference? JavaScript supports only pass by value. With objects, the object reference itself is passed by value and so both the original reference and parameter copy refer to the same object.

What will be the output of the following two line code? What content do the following lines display in an web browser? The content is: Write an equivalent JavaScript statement for the given expression: The equivalent JavaScript statement is: For each of the following, write a single statement that performs the indicated task.

Write a JavaScript statement or a set of JavaScript statements to accomplish the following: Calculate the value of 2. The JavaScript statement is: ExploringJava What will be the value X1 after execution of the following code: What will be the output that the following lines will be displayed in an web browser. Give the output of the following program: The output is outputc.

The output is outputd. The area of a square is: Give the output of the following code: How are you? The output is given in the following figure: The function is: Create a JavaScript function to add two parameterized numbers. Note that the two numbers will be received as parameter to function. Write a JavaScript function to convert the temperature value from Celsius to Fahrenheit. Assume that the temperature value is Write the following code in Notepad editor and save as fun What role do the arguments play in a function?

How will you call a function? Name the statement that sends back a value from a function. How many values can be returned by a function? When is the execution of the function terminated?

Summarise the rules that must be followed during function call. In the following function declaration, where does the value for number come from? Whats wrong with the following JavaScript? Branching in JavaScript 3 3. The flow of activity through the program code is called the flow of control. In computer programming, there are three main types of control flows that occur. These are:. The statements execute from top to bottom sequentially.

Conditional or selection. Out of two instructions, only one will be executed successfully depending on the condition. Because the condition produces a result as either True or False. Repetition or loop. The instruction s are repeated over a whole list whenever the condition is True. Figure 3. Statement 3 if condition is false. In this chapter, we will discuss about the conditional or brancking statements.

VBScript supports two control statements: In this category, VBScript programming language provides following types of decision making statements as given in Table 3. This statement is a fundamental control statement. If the Condition is false , then the conditional code if condition statement is bypassed. For example, suppose you have declared a variable named MyPer and you want to print a message Grade A when the value of MyPer is greater than and equal to The JavaScript code for if For example, type the following JavaScript code in Notepad window: Save the file with Although the simple if statement is used to check one condition, it can lead to executing multiple dependent statements.

This is called a block. If the value in MyPer is greater than or equal to 80, the line of code in the block executes next. Otherwise, JavaScript skips the entire block and continues with the program. The if statement executes a number of operators.

These are listed in Table 3. The condition includes any relational comparison and must be enclosed within parentheses. If the value of the condition is non-zero, then the body of if gets executed. Some of valid if statements are: The application should enter your age and display the message: Your age not more than If age is less than Solution The code is ifage.

Example Write the JavaScript code to compare two numbers and print the numbers with their comparison result. Solution The code is ifendif. The if The flow of control with an if If the Condition is true, the entire block of statements else code following the if is performed.

For example, suppose you have declared a floating-point variable named MyPer and you want to print a message Grade A when the value of MyPer is greater than and equal to 80, otherwise print a message You have a different grade.

The JavaScript code for if condition is: Some of the valid if-else statements are: Example Simran Kaushik developed web application using JavaScript to convert temperature from Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa. The resulted web page is shown below: To satisfy the page, enter the degree to the Textbox and select option from combobox Celsius or Fahrenheit and then calculate the temperature from Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa using JavaScript code. Solution Write the following code in Notepad editor and save as convert.

This is very useful to test various conditions using single if As you can see in this if else if ladder, conditions are evaluated from top. First Condition-1 will be evaluated and if this is true, the code inside the if block will be executed.

If Condition-1 is false, Condition- 2 will be evaluated. If Condition-2 is true, the code inside that else if block will be executed. If Condition- 2 is false, Condition-3 will be evaluated.

This will go on like this. If none of the conditions are true, the code inside the else block will be executed. Some of the valid nested if statements are: You can add as many else if clauses as you need to provide alternative choices. Example Write a JavaScript program to find the greatest among three numbers. Display the greater number with appropriate message.

For example, if you have three numbers like this: Solution Write the following code in Notepad editor and save as greatest. The statement is a multiway branch statement. It provides an easy way to dispatch execution to different parts of your code based on the value of an expression.

The syntax for the switch statement is: Here, x The expression must be of integer, or character type and each of the values specified in the case statements must be of a type compatible with the expression.

If the expression matches the second case, value2, the statements that are usually under value2 execute. If none of the case expressions matches that of the switch expression, the default case block executes.

The examples of switch statements are: For example, to check for vowel characters, spaces and consonants, the switch structure is: The switch statement can be used to combine cases and executed as one. To do this, you can type two or more cases together. In the above example, if the value of letter is either A, a, E, e, I, i, O, o, U or u then number of vowels is incremented.

If the value of letter is , then number of spaces is incremented. If none of these is true then the default condition is executed, that is, the number of consonants is incremented. Example Write the JavaScript code to enter the month number and display respective month name and days. Solution Write the following code in Notepad editor and save as days.

If you enter the month no. An if statement allows a program to choose whether or not to execute a statement. An if-else statement allows a program to do one thing if a condition is true and a different thing if the condition is false. If you omit the curly brackets in if condition, only the statement that immediately follows the condition would be executed. A switch statement can be implemented as a series of if-then statement.

An empty statement indicates that no action is to be repeated while some condition remains true. The switch statement handles a series of decisions in which a particular variable or expression is tested for values it may assume and different actions are taken. In most programs, it is necessary to include a break statement after the statements for each case.

Several cases can execute the same statements by listing the case labels together before the statements. The switch structure can only test for constant integral expressions.

What is a Boolean variable? A variable is referred to as Boolean if it can hold a value that is either true or false. What is a block? A block is the simplest type of structured statement. Its purpose is simply to group a sequence of statements into a single statement. The format of a block is: What is an if statement? Give its syntax.

It is an example of a branching or decision statement. How can the switch statement be replaced with a series of if-else statements? A switch statement can always be rewritten as a series of if-else statements by creating an if condition for each case value in the switch. The statements associated with each case value are executed in the appropriate if statement. It is very difficult to rewrite a switch statement that does not use a break statement at the end of each case.

Default clause is used to handle the case when no match of any case in the switch statement is found. What is the purpose of break statement in a loop? Break statement is used to terminate the loop. What is the purpose of break keyword while using Switch Case Statement? Illustrate with the help of an example.

A break statement in switch causes control to skip all the statements after it and jump to the next statement just after the switch block.

The following is a segment of program. Find the error in each of the following code segments and explain how to correct it. Missing break statement in the statements for the first case. Add a break statement at the end of the statements for the first case. Note that this is not necessarily an error if you want the statement of case 2: Give the output of the following code fragment: What will be the corresponding output of the following code segment if the Num value is ThirtyonlyForty only.

Write JavaScript statements to accomplish the following: Test if the value of variable ctr is greater than If it is, display Ctr is greater than Convert the following code segment using switch-case construct: The switch-case construct is: While working in JavaScript, Ms Kanta Surbhi wants to display cleared or Re-attempt required message depending on the marks entered.

Help her to choose more appropriate statement out of if statement and Switch statement. Rewrite the following program code using a Switch statement. The code using a Switch statement is: Rewrite the following program code using an if statement.

Code using if statement is: Rewrite the following program code using switch statement: The switch statement is: Write the output of the following program: The output is outpute. The output is outputf. Point the errors in the following code and write the correct script.

The errors are: The case clause does not support semicolon, it should be colon: The correct program is outputg. Write a JavaScript program to enter a number and check whether it is positive, negative or zero.

The JavaScript program is checknum. What is the difference between selection and repetition? What is a block statement? How are block statements used in JavaScript programs? What is the purpose of if statement? Describe the different forms of if statement.

Describe switch statement. What is the difference between if and switch statements? What is the purpose of default clause in a switch statement? Write the statements for the following situations: Using the JavaScript statement, answer the following: Identify and correct the errors in each of the following. There may be more than one error in each piece of code. Find the error for the following: There may be more than one error.

The following code should print whether integer nVal is odd or even: What will be the output of the following program segment? Write equivalent switch statement for the following: Find the output of the following code: What is wrong with the following code fragment?

Using braces and correct indentation, rewrite it so that it produces correct output. Rewrite the following switch statement using if-else statements: An electronic shop has announced the following seasonal discounts on the purchase of certain items:.

Write a JavaScript program based on the above criteria, to input amount of purchase and the type of purchase Laptop or Desktop by a customer.

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Compute and print the net amount to be paid by a customer along with his name and address. Write a JavaScript program that asks the user to enter two integers, obtains the numbers from the user and displays the larger number followed by the words is larger in an alert message dialog.

If the numbers are equal, print the message These numbers are equal. Write a JavaScript program that reads an integer and determines and prints whether it is odd or even Hint. Use the modulus operator. As even number is a multiple of 2. Any multiple of 2 leaves a reminder of zero when divided by 2.

Write a JavaScript program that takes the number of seconds as input. The program converts this value to the corresponding number of hours, minutes, and seconds and displays these values. Write a JavaScript program that accepts the length and width of a rectangle as inputs. The program should calculate the rectangles area and perimeter, and display the values rounded to the nearest length of a foot. Looing in JavaScript 4 4. Looping is also called as repetition structure.

A repetition structure allows the programmer to perform an action that to be repeated until the given condition is true.

Figure 4. JavaScript supports three types of looping statements: Loops save a lot of time. A loop is a structure that allows repeated execution of a block of statements. Within a looping structure, condition if condition a condition called Boolean expression is evaluated. If it is true, is true a block of statements called the loop body executes and the Boolean expression is evaluated again.

The format of the while statement is: Example Write the JavaScript code to enter a number in a text box and display all the numbers for 1 to till that number using while loop. Solution Write the following code in Notepad editor and save as number. Open the number. The while loop can accept expressions and not just conditions. The following are all legal expressions: Some other examples of while loop are: Let us study a sample logic to find the factorial of a number using while loop fact.

From the above factorial logic, the counter num increases till N and multiply with fact for finding the factorial of N. When the above steps are executed it will find the factorial as: The factorial of 10 is This ensures that the dowhile condition executes a Statement first. After the first execution of the Statement, it examines the Condition.

If the Condition is true, then it executes the Statement again. It will keep executing the Statement as long as the Condition is true.

Thus, this loop is also called an exit-controlled loop. The whole dowhile statement must end with a semicolon. Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Product details Paperback: Laxmi Publications Language: English ISBN What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a product review. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews.

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